Epitensoric Position of the Chorda Tympani in Anthropoidea: a New Synapomorphic Character, with Remarks on the Fissura Glaseri in Primates

  • Wolfgang Maier
Part of the Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology Series book series (VERT)

As is well known from human anatomy, the chorda tympani detaches from the facial nerve before its exit from the stylomastoid foramen; recurving around the hyoid it enters the tympanic cavity via a small foramen in the facial canal (canaliculus chordae tympani). Then, embedded in an epithelial fold, it passes between the crus longum of the incus and the malleus across the tendon of the tensor tympani muscle. Anteriorly, it is situated at the medial side of the anterior process of the malleus (Folianus) before it exits from the tympanic cavity through the petrotympanic fissure or fissura Glaseri (cf. Warwick and Williams, 1973, figure 286; Henson, 1974, figure 21A; and many other textbooks of human anatomy). The anterior process consists in fact of a small dermal bone called the gonial in the German anatomical literature (Gaupp, 1908, 1911, 1913), which is synonymous with the prearticular of vertebrate paleontology and English comparative anatomy (Williston, 1903; De Beer, 1937).

Keywords

Ruban Perforation Tral Crest Flange 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adkins, R. M. Honeycutt, R. L., 1991. Molecular phylogeny of the superorder Archonta. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 88, 10317–10321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allard, M. W., McNiff, B. E., Miyamoto, M. M., 1996. Support for interordinal eutherian relationships with an emphasis on primates and their archontan relatives. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 5, 78–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allin, E. F., 1975. Evolution of the mammalian middle ear. Journal of Morphology 147, 403–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allin, E. F., Hopson, J. A., 1992. Evolution of the auditory system in Synapsida (Mammal-like reptiles and primitive mammals) as seen in the fossil record. In: Webster, D. B., Fay, R. R., Popper, A. N. (Eds.), The Evolutionary Biology of Hearing. Springer, NewYork, pp. 587–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beard, K. C., 1993. Origin and evolution of gliding in early Cenozoic Dermoptera (Mammalia, Primatomorpha). In: MacPhee, R. D. E. (Ed.), Primates and their Relatives in Phylogenetic Perspective. Plenum, New York, pp. 63–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beard, K. C., MacPhee, R. D. E., 1994. Cranial anatomy of Shoshonius and the antiquity of the Anthropoidea. In: Fleagle, J. G., Kay, R. F. (Eds.), Anthropoid Origins. Plenum, New York, pp. 55–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bender, O., 1906. Die Schleimhautnerven des Facialis, Glossopharyngeus und Vagus. Studien zur Morphologie des Mittelohres und der benachbarten Kopfregion der Wirbeltiere. Denkschriften der Medizinisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft zu Jena, Volume VII, pp. 341–454.Google Scholar
  8. Bloch, J. I., Boyer, D. M., 2002. Grasping primate origins. Science 298, 1606–1610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bondy, G., 1907. Beiträge zur vergleichenden anatomie des Gehörorgans der Säuger. (Tympanicum, Membrana Shrapnelli und Chordaverlauf). Anatomische Hefte 35, 293–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bugge, J., 1974. The cephalic arterial system in insectivores, primates, rodents and lagomorphs, with special reference to the systematic classification. Acta Anatomica 87(Supplement 62), 1–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cartmill, M., Kay, R. F., 1978. Cranio-dental morphology, tarsier affinities and primate suborders. In: Chivers, D. J., Joysey, K. A. (Eds.), Recent Advances in Primatology. Academic, New York, pp. 205–213.Google Scholar
  12. Cords, E., 1915. Ueber das Primordialcranium von Perameles spec.? unter Beruecksichtigung der Deckknochen. Anatomische Hefte 52, 1–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. De Beer, G. R., 1937. The Development of the Vertebrate Skull. Clarendon, Oxford.Google Scholar
  14. Delpero, M., Masters, J. C., Cervella, P., Crovella, S., Ardito, G., Rumpler, Y., 2001. Phylogenetic relationships among the Malagasy lemuriforms (Primates: Strepsirrhini) as indicated by mitochondrial sequence data from the 12S rRNA gene. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 133, 83–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Doran, A. H. G., 1878. Morphology of the mammalian Ossicula auditus. Transactions of the Linean Society London, series 2, 1, 371–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fleischer, G., 1973. Studien am Skelett des Gehörorgans der Säugetiere, einschließlich des Menschen. Säugetierkundliche Mitteilungen 21, 131–239.Google Scholar
  17. Gaupp, E., 1906. Die Entwickelung des Kopfskelettes. In: Hertwig, O. (Ed.), Handbuch der vergleichenden und experimentellen Entwickelungslehre der Wirbeltiere III (2), 573–873. Gustav Fischer, Jena.Google Scholar
  18. Gaupp, E., 1908. Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte und vergleichenden Morphologie des Schädels von Echidna aculeata var. typica. Semonsche Zoologische Forschungsreisen III, Part II, 2, 539–788. Jena.Google Scholar
  19. Gaupp, E., 1911. Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Unterkiefers der Wirbeltiere. I. Der Processus anterior (Folii) des Hammers der Säuger und das Goniale der Nichtsäuger. Anatomischer Anzeiger 39, 97–135.Google Scholar
  20. Gaupp, E., 1913. Die Reichertsche Theorie (Hammer-, Aboss- und Kieferfrage). Archiv für Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte 1912 (Supplement), 1–416.Google Scholar
  21. Gegenbaur, C., 1892. Lehrbuch der Anatomie des Menschen. 5th edition. W. Engelmann, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  22. Glaser, H., 1680. Tractatus Posthumus de Cerebro.- Basil. (quoted after Hyrtl, 1845).Google Scholar
  23. Goodrich, E. S., 1930. Studies on the Structure and Development of Vertebrates. Macmillan, London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gregory, W. K., 1910. The orders of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 27, 1–524.Google Scholar
  25. Hennig, W., 1966. Phylogenetic Systematics. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.Google Scholar
  26. Henson, O. W., 1974. Comparative anatomy of the middle ear. In: Keidel, W. D., Neff, W. D. (Eds.), Handbook of Sensory Physiology Springer, Berlin, pp. 39–109.Google Scholar
  27. Hertwig, O., 1888. Lehrbuch der Entwicklungsgeschichte des Menschen und der Wirbelthiere. Fischer, Jena.Google Scholar
  28. Hyrtl, J., 1845. Vergleichend-anatomische Untersuchungen ueber das innere Gehoerorgan des Menschen und der Saeugethiere. F. Ehrlich, Prague.Google Scholar
  29. Hyrtl, J., 1873. Lehrbuch der Anatomie des Menschen. 12th edition. W. Braumueller, Vienna.Google Scholar
  30. Jarvik, E., 1980. Basic Structure and Evolution of Vertebrates. Academic, London.Google Scholar
  31. Kay, R. F., Ross, C., Williams, B., 1997. Anthropoid origins. Science 275, 797–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kuhn, H.-J., Zeller, U., (Eds.) 1987. Morphogenesis of the Mammalian Skull - Mammalia Depicta 13. Parey Verlag, Hamburg, pp. 1–144.Google Scholar
  33. MacPhee, R. D. E., 1977. Ontogeny of the ectotympanic -petrosal plate relationship in strepsirhine prosimians. Folia primatologica 27, 245–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. MacPhee, R. D. E., 1981. Auditory regions of primates and eutherian insectivores. Contributions to Primatology 18, 1–282.Google Scholar
  35. MacPhee, R. D. E., Cartmill, M., 1986. Basicranial structures and primate systematics. In: Swindler, D., Erwin, J. (Eds.), Comparative Primate Biology, Volume 1. Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 219–275.Google Scholar
  36. Maier, W., 1990. Phylogeny and ontogeny of mammalian middle ear structures. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 40, 55–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Maier, W., 1993. Cranial morphology of the therian common ancestor, as suggested by the adaptations of neonate marsupials. In: Szalay, F. S., Novacek, M. J., McKenna, M. C., Mammal Phylogeny. Mesozoic differentiation, Multituberculates, Monotremes, Early Therians, and Marsupials. Springer, New York, pp. 165–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McKenna, M. C., Bell, S. K., 1997. Classification of Mammals above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  39. Meckel, J. F., 1815. Handbuch der menschlichen Anatomie. Buchhandlung des Halleschen Weisenhauses, Halle/Berlin.Google Scholar
  40. Mickoleit, G., 2004. Phylogenetischen Systematik der Wirbeltiere. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Muenchen.Google Scholar
  41. Murphy, W. J., Eizirik, E., O’Brien, J., Zhang, Y. P., Madsen, O., Scally, M., Douady, C. J., Teeling, E., Ryder, O. A., Stanhope, M. J., DeJong, W. W., Springer, M. S., 2001. Resolution of the early placental mammal radiation using Bayesian phylogenetics. Science 294, 2348–2351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Novacek, M. J., 1990. Morphology, paleontology, and the higher clades of mammals. In: Genoways, H. (Ed.), Current Mammalogy Volume 2, Plenum, New York, pp. 507–543.Google Scholar
  43. Novacek, M. J., 1993. Patterns of diversity in the mammalian skull.- In: Hanken, J., Hall, B. K. (Eds.), The skull, Volume 2, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 438–545.Google Scholar
  44. Nyhart, L. K., 1995. Biology Takes Form. Animal Morphology and the German Universities 1800–1900. Chicago University Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  45. Reinbach, W., 1952. Zur Entwicklung des Primordialcraniums von Dasypus novemcinctus LINNÉ (Tatusia novemcincta LESSON). Part I.- Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie 44, 375–444.Google Scholar
  46. Ross, C., 1994. The craniofacial evidence for anthropoid and tarsier relationships. In: Fleagle, J. G. and Kay, R. F. (Eds.), Anthropoid Origins. Plenum, New York, pp. 469–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ross, C., Williams, B., Kay, R. F., 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of anthropoid relationships. Journal of Human Evolution 35, 221–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ruf, I., Frahnert, S., Maier, W., in press. The chorda tympani and its contribution to rodent phylogeny. Mammalian Biology.Google Scholar
  49. Russell, E. S., 1916. Form and Function. A Contribution to the History of Animal Morphology. J. Murray, London (Reprint Chicago University Press 1982).Google Scholar
  50. Saban, R., 1963. Contribution à l’étude de l’os temporal des Primates. Mémoires du Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, ns, A 39, 1–378.Google Scholar
  51. Sargis, E. J., 2002. Primate origins nailed. Science 298, 1564–1565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Soshani, J., Groves, C. P., Simons, E. L., Gunnell, G. F., 1996. Primate phylogeny: Morphological vs molecular results. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 5, 102–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Silcox, M. T., Bloch, J. I., Sargis, E. J., Boyer, D. M., 2005. Euarchonta (Dermoptera, Scandentia, Primates). In: Rose, K. D., Archibald, J. D. (Eds.), The Rise of Placental Mammals. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, pp. 127–144.Google Scholar
  54. Simmons, N. B., 1993. The importance of methods: Archontan phylogeny and cladisitic analysis. In: MacPhee, R. (Eds.), Primates and their Relatives in Phylogenetic Perspective. Plenum, New York, pp. 1–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Spatz, W., 1964. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Ontogenese des Cranium von Tupaia glis (Diard 1820). Morphologisches Jahrbuch 106, 321–416.Google Scholar
  56. Springer, M. S., Murphy, W. J., Eizirik, E., O’Brien, J., 2005. Molecular evodence for major placental clades. In:. Rose, K. D., Archibald, J. D. (Eds.), The Rise of Placental Mammals. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, pp. 37–49.Google Scholar
  57. Starck, D., 1960. Das cranium eines Schimpansenfetus (Pan troglodytes Blumenbach, 1799) von 71 mm SchStlge. Morphologisches Jahrbuch 100, 559–647.Google Scholar
  58. Starck, D., 1962. Das cranium von Propithecus spec. (Prosimiae, Lemuriformes, Indriidae). Bibliotheca primatologica 1, 163–196.Google Scholar
  59. Starck, D., 1967. Le crâne des Mammifères. In: Grassé, P.-P. (Ed.), Traité des Zoologie, Volume XVI, Masson, Paris. pp. 405–549.Google Scholar
  60. Szalay, F. S., 1975a. Phylogeny of primate higher taxa: the basicranial evidence. In: Luckett, W., Szalay, F. (Eds.), Phylogeny of the Primates. Plenum, New York, pp. 91–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Szalay, F. S., 1975b. Haplorhine phylogeny and the status of the Anthropoidea. In: Tuttle, R. H. (Ed.), Primate Functional Morphology and Evolution. Mouton Publishers, The Hague, The Netherlands, pp. 3–22.Google Scholar
  62. Toeplitz, C., 1920. Bau und Entwicklung des Knorpelschaedels von Didelphis marsupialis. Zoologica 27, 1–84.Google Scholar
  63. van Kampen, P. N., 1905. Die Tympanalgegend des Säugetierschädels. Morphologisches Jahrbuch 34, 321–722.Google Scholar
  64. van der Klaauw, C. J., 1931. The auditory bulla in some fossil mammals, with a general introduction to this region of the skull. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 62, 1–352.Google Scholar
  65. Voit, M., 1909. Das Primordialcranium des Kaninchen unter Berücksichtigung der Deckknochen. Anatomische Hefte, 1.Abt. 38, 425–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Waddell, P. J., Okada, N., Hasegawa, M., 1999. Towards resolving the interordinal relationships of placental mammals. Systematic Biology 48, 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Warwick, R., Williams, P. L., (Eds.), 1973. Gray’s Anatomy. 35th edition. Longman, London.Google Scholar
  68. Wible, J. R., Martin, J. R., 1993. Ontogeny of the tympanic floor and roof in archontans. In: MacPhee, R. D. E. (Ed.), Primates and their Relatives in Phylogenetic Perspective. Plenum, New York, pp. 111–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Williston, S. W., 1903. North American Plesiosaurs. Part I.- Publ. Field Columbian Museum 73, Geological series II/1, 1–77.Google Scholar
  70. Wilson, D. E., Reeder, D. M. 1993. Mammal Species of the World. 2nd edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  71. Zeller, U. A., 1983. Zur Ontogenese und Morphologie des Craniums von Tupaia belangeri (Tupaiidae, Scandentia, Mammalia). Medical Dissertation, University Goettingen, 308 pp.Google Scholar
  72. Zeller, U., 1986. The systematic relations of tree shrews: evidence from skull morphogenesis. In: Else, J. G., Lee, P. C. (Eds.), Primate Evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 273–280.Google Scholar
  73. Zeller, U., 1989. Die Entwicklung und Morphologie des Schädels von Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Mammalia: Prototheria: Monotremata). Abhandlungen (Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft) 545, 1–188.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfgang Maier
    • 1
  1. 1.Lehrstuhl Spezielle ZoologieUniversität TübingenTübingenGermany

Personalised recommendations