Advertisement

The vital soil gradually evolved after the formation of earth. Beyond the illusion of the day there should be awareness that recycling of elements is a phenomenon existing over billions of years. Whereas the anoxic processes are far older than the oxic ones and consequently have a longer history of evolution. The principle of the infallibility of nature in recycling of elements is also applicable for the biodegradation of organic contaminants. The history of environmental pollution, resulting in soil/sediment contamination, is relatively short. One of the first pollution affairs dates from the Roman period (Hong et al., 1996) and refers to heavy metals, the open smelting of ores. Since than non-optimal metal-processing industries resulted in heavy metal fallout, causing elimination of sensitive species in soils but also adaptation. Metal resistant grasses are Agrostis and Festuca (Ernst 1989), whereas Arabidopsis halleri became a hyper accumulator of Zn (Ernst, 2004). The soil microflora (Doelman et al., 1994) and the soil fauna (Hopkins, 1994) became affected in many ways. The soil contamination by organics is more recent and is mostly the result of mismanagement, such as overdoses of plant-protection chemicals as DDT. Since the early 1950s there is concern on those issues. The book Silent Spring (Carson, 1962) questioned the accumulation of DDT in food chains: birds of prey became well known victims. The relation between soil contamination and higher animals is qualitatively and quantitatively shown by Van den Brink (2004). Simultaneously those spillages became a source of inspiration to study their fate as microbial degradation. The anaerobic degradation pathways of oil compounds such as BTEX (Wilson et al., 1986) and of degreasing compounds, applied in the dry cleaning industry, were discovered and could be applied in in-situ remediation. Degradation rates and preferable degradation conditions became known. In table 1 some relevant historical events are mentioned.

Keywords

Soil Fauna Anaerobic Degradation Tetra Chloro Ethane Chloro Ethane Hexa Chloro 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adrians, P., et al., 1995. Bioavailability and transformation of highly chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in anaerobic soils and sediments. Environmental Science and Technology 29: 2252-2260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander, M., 1985. Biodegradation of organic chemicals. Environmental Science and Technology 18: 106-117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atlas, R.M., 1981. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons: an environmental perspective. Microbial reviews. 45: 180-209.Google Scholar
  4. Bachmann, A., W. de Bruin, J.C. Jumelet, H.H.N. Rijnaarts and A.J.B. Zehnder, 1988. Aerobic biomineralization of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexanen in contaminated soil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 54: 548-554.Google Scholar
  5. Bemmel van, J.B.M. and R.B. Klijn, 2006. Fast biological remediation of chlorinated ethenes in Almelo. Bodem 6: 25-27.Google Scholar
  6. Bongers, T., 1990. The maturity index: an ecological measure of environmental disturbance based on nematode species composition. Oecologia 83: 14-19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bongers, T. and H. Ferris, 1999. Nematode community structure as bio-indicator in environmental monitoring. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14: 224-228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bouwer, E.J. and P.L. McCarty, 1993. Transformation of 1- and 2-carbon halogenated aliphatic compounds under methanogenic conditions. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 45: 1286-1294.Google Scholar
  9. Bryson, B., 2003. A short history of nearly everything. Broadway Books New York ISBN 90 450 0970 6Google Scholar
  10. Bunge, M.I., J.D. Kahn, E.K. Wallis and A.D. Wahner, 2003. Reductive halogenation of chlorinated dioxins by anaerobic bacterium. Nature 401.Google Scholar
  11. De Duve, C., 1995. Vital Dust. The origin and evolution of life on earth. Life is a cosmic imperative. BasicBooks (Harper Collins Publishers, Inc.), New York.Google Scholar
  12. Doelman, P. and G. Breedveld, 1999. In situ versus on site practises. In: Bioremediation of contaminated soils; Agronomy monograph 37: 539-558. Eds.: Adriano et al.; ASA, CSSA, SSSA, Madison Wisconsin, USA.Google Scholar
  13. Doelman, P., 2004. Synthesis for soil management. In: Vital Soil: Developments in Soil Science Doelman & Eijsackers (eds). Elseviers Scientific Press, pp 313-338.Google Scholar
  14. Doelman, P., E. Jansen, M. Michels and M. van Til, 1994. Effects of heavy metals in soil on microbial diversity and activity; the sensitivity/resistance index, an ecologically relevant parameter. Soil Biology and Soil Fertility 17: 177-184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Doelman, P., L. Haanstra, H. Loonen and A. Vos, 1990. Decomposition of alpha- and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane in soil under field conditions in a temperate climate. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 22: 629-634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Doelman, P. and H. Eijsackers. Vital Soil; function, value and properties. Developments in soil sciences, volume 29. Elseviers Scientific Press.Google Scholar
  17. Eekert, van M.H.A., 2004. Personal communications.Google Scholar
  18. Ernst, W.H.O., 1989. Mine vegetation in Europe. In: Shaw, A.J. (ed) Heavy metal tolerance in plants: Evolutionary aspects. CRC Press, Boca raton, pp 21-37.Google Scholar
  19. Ernst, W.H.O., 2002. Living at the border of life. Retirement Oratio Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam. Haan, J. den., 2003. Natural Biodegradation of VOCl’s in Rotterdam subsurface. Gemeentewerken Rotterdam report.Google Scholar
  20. Holliger, H.C., 1992. Reductive dehalogenation by anaerobic bacteria. PhD thesis Wageningen University, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  21. Hong, S., J.P. Candelone, C.C. Patterson and C.F. Boutron, 1996. History of ancient copper smelting pollution during Roman and medieval times recorded in green land. Atmosphere and Environments 31: 2235-2242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hopkin, S.D.P., 1994. Effects of metal pollution on decomposition processes in terrestrial eco-systems with special reference to fungivorous soil arthropods. In: Metals in soil/plantsystems (ed. S.M. Ross) John Wileyand Sons, Chichester, pp 303-326.Google Scholar
  23. Waters, A.G. and J.M. Oades, 1991. Organic matter in water-stable aggregates. In: Advances in Soil Organic Matter Research: The impact on agricculture and the environment. Wilson, W.S. (ed.). The Royal society of Chemistry, Cambridge, pp 113-174.Google Scholar
  24. Werff, van der, P.A., 1992. Applied soil ecology in alternative agriculture. Reader University Wageningen, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  25. Wilson, J.T., L.E. Leach, M. Henson and J.N, Jones, 1986. In situ biorestoration as a groundwater remediation technique. Groundwater Monitoring Review 6: 56-64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yeates, G.W. and T. Bongers,1999. Nematode diversity in agro-ecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 74: 113-135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Doelman
    • 1
  1. 1.Doelman AdviceNetherlands

Personalised recommendations