Tuber spp. biodiversity in one of the southernmost European distribution areas

Original Paper
Part of the Topics in Biodiversity and Conservation book series (TOBC, volume 7)


The aims of this paper were to study the genetic diversity within and among 6 Tuber taxa, the phylogenetic relationships and the spatial distribution of truffles from the Basilicata region (southern Italy). Molecular analyses, using the internal transcribed spacer region, microsatellites, minisatellites and random amplified polymorphic loci revealed the highest expected intra-specific heterozygosity (He=0.30) in T. aestivum, followed by that of T. mesentericum (He=0.22). T. borchii (He=0.17), T. magnatum (He=0.16), T. aestivum fo. uncinatum (He=0.12) and T. brumale fo. moschatum (He=0.09) showed a lower average heterozygosity. The whole set of markers were demonstrated to be useful in clearly differentiating Tuber taxa, separating them in two distinct groups and in five sub-clusters, each corresponding to one single taxon. The first cluster (T. borchii, T. magnatum and T. brumale fo. moschatum) was more differentiated than the second one (T. aestivum, T. aestivum fo. uncinatum and T. mesentericum). T. brumale fo. moschatum was the most differentiated Tuber taxon. It was more related to the white truffles (the closely related T. borchii and T. magnatum) than to the remaining related black truffles T. aestivum and T. mesentericum. The amount of Tuber species richness was higher over the western side of Basilicata, in cold Lauretum and in Castanetum phytoclimatic Pavari’s zones. A spatial genetic structure was detected for T. aestivum, as shown by the significant correlation between geographic and genetic distances (rs=0.32; P<0.0001). Integration of molecular and geographic diversity patterns can allow the selection of sites for Tuber and Tuber-related biodiversity conservation.


Basilicata region Biodiversity Ecogeographic distribution Molecular markers Tuber taxa 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amicucci A, Rossi I, Potenza L, Agostini D, Stocchi V (1997) Use of sequence characterised amplified region and RAPD markers in the identification of the white truffle Tuber magnatum Pico. Biotechnol Tech 11:149–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amicucci A, Zambonelli A, Giomaro G, Potenza L, Stocchi V (1998) Identification of ectomycorrhizal fungi of the genus Tuber by species-specific ITS primers. Mol Ecol 7:273–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bencivenga M (1998) Ecology and cultivation of Tuber magnatum Pico. In: Proceedings of the first international meeting on “Ecology, Physiology and Cultivation of Edible Mycorrhizal Mushrooms”. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden, 3–4 July, 1998Google Scholar
  4. Bencivenga M, Granetti B (1990) Analisi comparativa delle caratteristiche ecologiche di Tuber magnatum Pico e Tuber melanosporum Vitt. nell’Italia centrale. In: Bencivenga M, Granetti B (eds) Atti del II Congr Int sul tartufo. Comunità Montana dei Monti Martani e del Serano, Spoleto, pp 433–434Google Scholar
  5. Bertault G, Raymond M, Berthomieu A, Callot G, Fernandez D (1998) Trifling variation in truffles. Nature 394:374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bertault G, Rousset F, Fernandez D, Berthomieu A, Hochberg ME, Callot G, Raymond M (2001) Population genetics and dynamics of the black truffle in a man-made truffle yield. Heredity 86:451–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bertini L, Potenza L, Zambonelli A, Amicucci A, Stocchi V (1998) Restriction fragment length polymorphism species-specific patterns in the identification of white truffles. FEMS Microbiol Lett 164:397–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bertini L, Amicucci A, Agostini D, Polidori E, Potenza L, Guidi C, Stocchi V (1999) A new pair of primers designed for amplification of the ITS region in Tuber species. FEMS Microbiol Lett 173:239–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buscot F, Wipp D, Di Battista C, Munch JC, Botton B, Martin F (1996) DNA polymorphism in morels: PCR/RFLP analysis of the ribosomal DNA spacers and microsatellite-primed PCR. Mycol Res 100:63–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cantore V, Iovino F, Pontecorvo G (1987) Aspetti climatici e zone fitoclimatiche della Basilicata. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR). Istituto di Ecologia e Idrologia Forestale. Pubblicazione No. 2: pp 3–49, CNR (eds) Cosenza 1987Google Scholar
  11. Cerone G, Alba E, Galante M, Frisullo S (1994) Specie fungine del genere Tuber in Basilicata. Micol Italiana 1:9–16Google Scholar
  12. Cerone G, Fiore G, Destradis A, Russo G, Alba A (1996) Studi morfologici di ascospore del genere Tuber mediante analisi di immagine. Micol Italiana 2:3–7Google Scholar
  13. Cerone G, Marino R, Rana GL (2000) Studi sui funghi ipogei e sulla tartuficoltura della Basilicata. Rivista di Micologia – Bollettino dell’Associazione Micologica Bresadola 4:333–346Google Scholar
  14. Cerone G, Fascetti S, Marino R, Rana GL, Pompili M, Coppola E (2002a) Caratteristiche ecologiche di una stazione di Tuber magnatum in Basilicata. Micol e Veget Medit 17(1):73–88Google Scholar
  15. Cerone G, Fascetti S, Melucci L, Rana GL, Tagliavini O (2002b) I tartufi della Comunità Montana “Marmo-Platano”. Ars Grafica Villa d’Agri – Potenza, Italy, p 143Google Scholar
  16. Cerone G, Rana GL, Tagliavini O (2003) Carta delle vocazioni tartufigene della Basilicata. Sito internet:
  17. De Gioia T, Sisto D, Rana GL, Figliuolo G (2005) Genetic structure of the Pleurotus eryngii species-complex. Mycol Res 109(1):71–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Don RH, Cox PT, Wainright BJ, Baker K, Mattick JS (1991) “Touchdown” PCR to circumvent spurious priming during gene amplification. Nucleic Acids Res 79:4008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Figliuolo G, Spagnoletti Zeuli PL (2000) A nested analysis to detect relationships between genetic markers and germplasm classes of durum wheat. Plant Genet Resour Newslett 124:44–51Google Scholar
  20. Figliuolo G, Perrino P (2004) Genetic diversity and intra-specific phylogeny of Triticum turgidum L. subsp. dicoccon (Schrank) Thell. revealed by RFLPs and SSRs. Genet Resour Crop Evol 51:519–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gandeboeuf D, Duprè C, Roeckel-Drevet P, Nicolas P, Chevalier G (1997) Grouping and identification of Tuber species using RAPD markers. Can J Bot 75:36–45Google Scholar
  22. Granetti B (1994) I Tartufi: biologia e tecniche di coltivazione. Micol Italiana 2:63–68Google Scholar
  23. Grechko VV (2002) Molecular DNA markers in phylogeny and systematics. Russ J Genet 38(8):851–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hijmans RJ, Guarino L, Bussink C, Rojas E (2002) DIVA-GIS Version 2. A geographic information system for the analysis of biodiversity data. Manual. International Potato Center (CIP), Lima, PeruGoogle Scholar
  25. Hodgkin T, Guarino L (1997) Ecogeographical surveys: a review. In: Valdes B et al (eds) Proceedings of the workshop on “Conservation of the Wild Relatives of the European Cultivated Plants”, Palermo (Italy) 1997, pp 21–26Google Scholar
  26. Istituto Centrale di Statistica (ISTAT) (1990) Territorio, climatologia e ambiente naturale. In: ISTAT (eds) Le regioni in cifre. Roma, Italy, p 20Google Scholar
  27. Latouche GN, Daniel HM, Lee OC, Mitchell TG, Sorrel TC, Meyer W (1997) Comparison of use of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics for identification of species of the amorph genus Candida and related teleomorph yeast species. J Clin Microbiol 35:3171–3180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Lewis PO, Zaykin D (2001) Genetic data analysis: computer program for the analysis of allelic data. Version 1.0 (d16c). Free program distributed by the authors over the internet from
  29. Longato S, Bonfante P (1997) Molecular identification of mycorrhizal fungi by direct amplification of microsatellite regions. Mycol Res 101(4):425–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Loveless MD, Hamrick JL (1984) Ecological determinants of genetic structure in plant populations. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 15:65–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lulli L, Bragato G, Gardin L (1999) Occurrence of Tuber melanosporum in relation to soil surface layer properties and soil differentiation. Plant Soil 214:85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mannozzi Torini L (1999) Il tartufo e la sua coltivazione. Edagricole-Edizioni Edagricole, Bologna, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  33. Marino R (1999) Studi sul tartufo in Basilicata. MS Thesis, Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Facoltà di Agraria, Potenza, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  34. Marino R, Cerone G, Rana GL (2003) Studi sui funghi ipogei della Basilicata. II contributo. Rivista di Micologia – Bollettino dell’Associazione Micologica Bresadola 1:53–62Google Scholar
  35. Martin F, Diez J, Dell B, Delaruelle C (2002) Phylogeography of the ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus species as inferred from nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences. New Phytol 153:345–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mello A, Cantisani A, Vizzini A, Bonfante P (2002) Genetic variability of Tuber uncinatum and its relatedness to other black truffles. Environ Microbiol 4(10):584–594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Montacchini F, Caramiello R (1968) Ecologia del Tuber magnatum in Piemonte. Allionia 14:1–29Google Scholar
  38. Montecchi A, Sarasini M (2000) Funghi Ipogei d’Europa. A.M.B. (eds) Fondazione Centro Studi Micologici. Trento, Italy, pp 714Google Scholar
  39. Moyersoen B, Beever RE, Martin F (2003) Genetic diversity of Pisolithus in New Zealand indicates multiple long-distance dispersal from Australia. New Phytol 160:569–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Murat C, Diez J, Luis P, Delaruelle C, Duprè C, Chevalier G, Bonfante P, Martin F (2004) Polymorphism at the ribosomal DNA ITS and its relation to postglacial re-colonization routes of the Perigord truffle Tuber melanosporum. New Phytol 164:401–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nei M (1987) Molecular evolutionary genetics. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Nei M, Li WH (1979) Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:5269–5273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pacioni G, Pomponi G (1991) Genotypic patterns of some Italian populations of the Tuber aestivum–T. mesentericum complex. Mycotaxon XLII:171–179Google Scholar
  44. Pacioni G, Comandini O (1999) Tuber. In: Cairney JWG, Chambers SM (eds) Ectomycorrhizal fungi. Key genera in profile. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, Germany, pp 163–186, Chap.6Google Scholar
  45. Paolocci F, Rubini A, Granetti B, Arcioni S (1997) Typing Tuber melanosporum and Chinese black truffle species by molecular markers. FEMS Microbiol Lett 153:255–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pavari A (1916) Studio preliminare sulla coltura di specie forestali esotiche in Italia. Parte generale, vol I. Annali del R. Ist. Sup. Forestale NazGoogle Scholar
  47. Rebelo AG, Sigfried WR (1992) Where should nature reserves be located in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa? Models for the spatial configuration of a reserve network aimed at maximizing the protection of diversity. Conserv Biol 6:243–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Regione Basilicata (2003) Il progetto carta pedolgica della Regione Basilicata in scala 1:250.000. In: Workshop “Un’indagine pedologica per conoscere, tutelare e valorizzare il territorio e l’agricoltura lucana”. Potenza (Italy), 7 April 2003. Regione Basilicata Dipartimento Agricoltura e Sviluppo Rurale, pp 1–54Google Scholar
  49. Riousset L, Riousset G, Chevalier G, Bardet MC (2001) Truffes d’Europe et de Chine. INRA, Paris, 181 ppGoogle Scholar
  50. Rossi I, Bartolacci B, Potenza L, Bertini L, Barbieri E, Stocchi V (2000) Identification of wh ite truffle species using RAPD markers. Plant Soil 219:127–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rubini A, Paolocci F, Granetti B, Arcioni S (1998) Single step molecular characterization of morphologically similar black truffle species. FEMS Microbiol Lett 164:7–12Google Scholar
  52. Rubini A, Topini F, Riccioni F, Paolocci F, Arcioni S (2004) Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in white truffle (Tuber magnatum). Mol Ecol Notes 4:116–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. SAS (1993) SAS/STAT, user’s guide, vol 2. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NCGoogle Scholar
  54. Tagliavini O (1999) I tartufi della Basilicata. In: Consiglio Regionale della Basilicata (eds) Basilicata Regione Notizie, Potenza, Italy, No. 91, pp 69–78Google Scholar
  55. Tocci A, Veracini A, Zazzi A (1995) Indagini preliminari sull’ecologia del tartufo bianco (Tuber magnatum) in Molise. Micol Italiana 2:64–79Google Scholar
  56. Weden C, Danell E, Camacho FJ, Backlund A (2004) The population of the hypogeous fungus Tuber aestivum syn. T. uncinatum on the island of Gotland. Mycorrhiza 14:19–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Weir BS (1996) Genetic data analysis II. Sinawer Associates, Inc., Sunderland Mass, CAGoogle Scholar
  58. White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (eds) PCR protocols. A guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp 315–322Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di BiologiaUniversità degli Studi della BasilicataPotenzaItaly

Personalised recommendations