Fatigue failures in structures frequently occur in joints. Various catastrophic accidents due to fatigue have been reported in the literature. As a consequence joints are a major issue for designing against fatigue. The prime purpose of a joint is to transmit loads from one element of the structure to an other element. The variety of different joint configurations is very large. Some elementary types of joints are shown in Figure 18.1.

A significant difference between two categories of joints is associated with the question whether it should be possible to disassemble and reassemble a joint, or whether that is not necessary. The lug type joint and the bolted joint are in the first category. However, riveted lap joints, bonded lap joints and welded joint, including spot welded joints, are supposed to remain in the as-produced condition. Another noteworthy aspect of joints is associated with eccentricities in the joint. The bolted joint in Figure 18.1 is fully symmetric with respect to the line of the applied load. But that is not true for the two non-symmetric lap joints in Figure 18.1. As a result of the eccentricity in these joint, bending is introduced by the applied tensileload. The additional bending, referred to as secondary bending, will increase notch effects in these joints. Furthermore, fasteners in a simple lap joints are loaded in single shear whereas bolts in the symmetric joint are loaded in double shear which appears to be a more favorable situation. Still another complexity is the occurrence of fretting in lugs and bolted and riveted joints. Once again, the variety of joints is just large. Moreover, the number of design parameters for each type of joint also contributes to a broad spectrum of design questions. Variables included are associated with joint dimensions, production variables and selected materials.


Fatigue Crack Fatigue Life Fatigue Strength Fatigue Limit Load Transmission 
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