Entomopathogenic Fungi for Control of Bemisia tabaci Biotype B: Foreign Exploration, Research and Implementation

  • Lawrence A. Lacey
  • Stephen P. Wraight
  • Alan A. Kirk
Part of the Progress in Biological Control book series (PIBC, volume 4)

Prior to the global outbreak of Bemisia tabaci type B in the early 1990s, very little attention was paid to the potential of fungal pathogens for control of this whitefly. A massive foreign exploration effort was mounted in 1991 by the USDA Agricultural Research Service to collect and develop fungi and other natural enemies of whiteflies. From 1990 until 1996, dozens of trips were made by scientists from the USDA European Biological Control Laboratory (EBCL) in Montpellier, France specifically for the purpose of finding natural enemies of whiteflies. The countries visited by EBCL ranged from European countries bordering the Mediterranean (Spain, France, Italy, Greece, Cyprus), to the Middle East (Israel, Egypt), Western Asia (Pakistan, India, Nepal), Southeast Asia (Thailand, Malaysia) and Latin America (Argentina and Brazil). Other exploratory efforts for entomopathogenic fungi within the USA and in other foreign countries (Philippines, Indonesia, Taiwan) were also undertaken by USDA-ARS personnel in Weslaco, Texas. The most prevalent fungus attacking B. tabaci in the field was Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. Fungi from whiteflies or from other insects with good activity against the silverleaf whitefly include Paecilomyces spp., Lecanicillium lecanii (=Verticillium), Beauveria bassiana and Aschersonia spp. Hundreds of isolates of these fungi were collected and shipped to the USA. Subsequent research involved screening of isolates for activity, study of factors that limited or enhanced their activity, and evaluation of candidate fungi in field and glasshouse crops. The literature on research for the development and implementation of these fungi is reviewed with recommendations for future avenues of research and development.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akey, D.H. and T.J. Henneberry. 1994. Sweetpotato whitefly control by Naturalis-L, the fungus Beauveria bassiana, in furrow and sub-drip irrigated upland cotton. Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, Memphis, TN, January 5–8, 1994, San Diego, CA, pp. 1089–1091, National Cotton Council of America, Memphis, TN.Google Scholar
  2. Akey, D.H. and T.J. Henneberry. 1998. Control of silverleaf whitefly with the entomopathogenic fungi, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus and Beauveria bassiana in upland cotton in Arizona. Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, San Diego, CA, 5–9 January 1998, Vol. 2, pp. 1073–1077. National Cotton Council of America.Google Scholar
  3. Alves, S.B. 1998. Fungos entomopatogênicos. In S.B. Alves, ed., Controle microbiano de insetos. pp. 289–381. Piracicaba, Brasil, Fundação de Estudos Agrários Luiz de Queiroz, 1163p.Google Scholar
  4. Alves, S.B., C.A. Silveira, R.B. Lopes, M.A. Tamai, E.Q. Ramos, and S. de Salvo. 2001. Eficácia de Beauveria bassiana, imidacloprid e thiacloprid no controle de Bemisia tabaci e na incidência do BGMV. Manejo Integrado de Plagas y Agroecologia 61: 31–36.Google Scholar
  5. Azevedo, A.C.S., M.C. Furlaneto, D.R. Sosa-Gomez, and M.H.P. Fungaro. 2000a. Molecular characterization of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) isolates. Scientia Agricola 57: 729–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Azevedo, A.C.S., D.R. Sosa-Gomez, M.R. Faria, and M.H.P. Fungaro. 2000b. Effects of double-stranded RNA on virulence of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) against the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci strain B (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Genetics and Molecular Biology 23: 61–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balakrishnan, S. and Y.L. Nene 1980. A note on the mode of penetration of the fungus Paecilomyces farinosus into the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Science and Culture 46: 231–232.Google Scholar
  8. Bartlett, M.C. and S.T. Jaronski. 1988. Mass production of entomogenous fungi for biological control of insects. In R.N. Burge, ed., Fungi in Biological Control Systems, pp. 61–85. Manchester University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Bateman, R.P., M. Carey, and C. Prior. 1993. The enhanced infectivity of Metarhizium flavoviride in oil formulations to desert locusts at low humidities. Annals of Applied Biology 122: 145–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Batta, Y.A. 2003. Production and testing of novel formulations of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff) Sorokin (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes). Crop Protection 22: 415–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ben-Ze’ev, I.S. 1993. Check list of fungi pathogenic to insects and mites in Israel, updated through 1992. Phytoparasitica 21: 213–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ben-Ze’ev, I.S., Y. Zelig, S. Bitton, and R.G. Kenneth. 1988. The Entomophthorales of Israel and their arthropod hosts: 1980–1988. Phytoparasitica 16: 247–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ben-Ze’ev, I.S., G. Gindin, I. Barash, and B. Raccah. 1994. Entomopathogenic fungi attacking Bemisia tabaci in Israel. Bemisia Newsletter (special issue) 8: 36.Google Scholar
  14. Berger, E.W. 1921. Natural enemies of scale insects and whiteflies in Florida. Quarterly Bulletin Florida Station Plant Board 5: 141–154.Google Scholar
  15. Bolckmans, K., G. Sterk, J. Eyal, B. Sels, and W. Stepman. 1995. PreFeRal (Paecilomyces fumosoroseus strain Apopka 97), a new microbial insecticide for the biological control of whiteflies in greenhouses. Mededelingen–Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 60: 707–711.Google Scholar
  16. Boulard, T., M. Mermier, J. Fargues, N. Smits, M. Rougier, and J.C. Roy. 2002. Tomato leaf boundary layer climate: implications for microbiological whitefly control in greenhouses. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 110: 159–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brooks, W.M. 1993. Host-parasitoid-pathogen interactions. In N.E. Beckage, S.N. Thompson, and B.A. Federici, eds., Parasites and Pathogens of Insects. Vol. 2, Pathogens, pp. 231–272. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  18. Brownbridge, M, S. Costa, and S.T. Jaronski. 2001. Effects of in vitro passage of Beauveria bassiana on virulence to Bemisia argentifolii. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 77: 280–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Burges, D., ed., 1998. Formulation of Microbial Biopesticides. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  20. Burges, D. 2007. Techniques for testing microbials for control of arthropod pests in greenhouses. In L.A. Lacey and H.K. Kaya, eds., Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology: Application and evaluation of pathogens for control of insects and other invertebrate pests, pp. 463–479. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  21. Butt, T.M., J.G. Harris, and K.A. Powell. 1999. Microbial biopesticides: the European Scene. In F.R. Hall and J.J. Menn, eds., Methods in Biotechnology, Vol. 5, Biopesticides: Use and Delivery, pp. 23–44. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.Google Scholar
  22. Cantone, F.A. and J.D. Vandenberg. 1998. Intraspecific diversity in Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. Mycological Research 102: 209–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cantone, F.A. and J.D. Vandenberg. 1999a. Genetic transformation and mutagenesis of the entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 74: 281–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cantone, F.A. and J.D. Vandenberg. 1999b. Use of the green fluorescent protein for investigations of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus in insect hosts. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 74: 193–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carruthers, R.I., S.P. Wraight, and W.A. Jones. 1993. An overview of biological control of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conference, January 10–14, 1993, New Orleans, LA, 2: 680–685. National Cotton Council, Memphis, TN.Google Scholar
  26. Castineiras, A. 1995. Natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Cuba. Florida Entomologist 78: 538–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chandler, D., J.B. Heale, and A.T. Gillespie. 1993. Competitive interaction between strains of Verticillium lecanii on two insects hosts. Annals of Applied Biology 122: 435–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chandler, D., J.B. Heale, and A.T. Gillespie. 1994. Effect of osmotic potential on the germination of conidia and colony growth of Verticillium lecanii. Mycological Research 98: 84–388.Google Scholar
  29. Chen, W.W. and M.G. Feng. 1999. Current status in basic and applied research on the entomopathogenic fungus, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. Natural Enemies of Insects 21: 140–144.Google Scholar
  30. Cliquet, S. and M.A. Jackson. 1997. Comparison of air-drying methods for evaluating the desiccation tolerance of liquid culture-produced blastospores of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 13: 299–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cohen, A.C., T.J. Henneberry, and C.C. Chu. 1996. Geometric relationships between whitefly feeding behavior and vascular bundle arrangements. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 78: 135–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Costa, H. 1998. Interaction of Beauveria bassiana with various fungicides under exposed conditions, 1997. Arthropod Management Tests 23: 349.Google Scholar
  33. Costa, S.D. and R.R. Gaugler. 1989. Sensitivity of Beauveria bassiana to solanine and tomatine: Plant defensive chemicals inhibit an insect pathogen. Journal of Chemical Ecology 15: 97–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Davidson, E.W., R.B.R. Patron, L.A. Lacey, R. Frutos, A. Vey, and D.L. Hendrix. 1996a. Activity of natural toxins against the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii, using a novel feeding bioassay system. Experimentalis et Applicata 79: 25–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Davidson, E.W., R.B.R. Patron, A. Vey, R. Frutos, R. St. Leger, L.A. Lacey, and D.L. Hendrix. 1996b. Effect of destruxins from Metarhizium anisopliae, ivermectin and Bacillus thuringiensis deltaendotoxins on adult silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii. In Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conference, Nashville, TN, January 9–12, 1996, 2: 739–740, National Cotton Council, Memphis, TN.Google Scholar
  36. De la Torre, M. and H.M. Cardenas-Cota. 1996. Production of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus conidia in submerged culture. Entomophaga 41: 443–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dolinski, C. and L.A. Lacey. 2007. Microbial control of arthropod pests of tropical tree fruits. Neotropical Entomology 36: 161–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Drummond, J., J.B. Heale, and A.T. Gillespie. 1987. Germination and effect of reduced humidity on expression of pathogenicity in Verticillium lecanii against the glasshouse whitefly Trialeurodes. Annals of Applied Biology 111: 193–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ekbom, B.S. 1979. Investigations on the potential of a parasitic fungus (Verticillium lecanii) for biological control of the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes). Swedish Journal of Agricultural Research 9: 129–138.Google Scholar
  40. Ekbom, B.S. 1981. Humidity requirements and storage of the entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii for use in greenhouses. Annales Entomologici Fennici 47: 61–62.Google Scholar
  41. Evans, H.C. and R.A. Samson. 1986. The genus Verticillium: Taxonomic problems in species with invertebrate hosts. Proceedings of the IV International Colloquium of Invertebrate Pathology, pp. 186–189, August 18–22, 1986, Veldhoven, The Netherlands, Society for Invertebrate Pathology, Knoxville, TN.Google Scholar
  42. Eyal, J., M.D.A. Mabud, K.L. Fischbein, J.F. Walter, L.S. Osborne, and Z. Landa. 1994. Assessment of Beauveria bassiana Nov. EO-1 strain, which produces a red pigment, for microbial control. Applied Biochemistry Biotechnology 44: 65–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fang, Q.-X., Y.-X. Gong, Y.-K. Zhou, Y.-M. Hu, S.F. Yang, and Y.-Y. Zhou. 1985. Selecting strains of the fungus Aschersonia. Acta Microbiologia Sinica 25: 208–213.Google Scholar
  44. Fargues, J., N.K. Maniania, J.C. Delmas, and N. Smits. 1992. Influence de la temperature sur la croissance in vitro d’hyphomycètes entomopathogènes. Agronomie 12: 557–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fargues, J., M.S. Goettel, N. Smits, A. Ouedraogo, C. Vidal, L.A. Lacey, C.J. Lomer, and M. Rougier. 1996. Variability in susceptibility to simulated sunlight of conidia among isolates of entomopathogenic Hyphomycetes. Mycopathologia 135: 171–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fargues, J., M.S. Goettel, N. Smits, A. Ouedraogo, and M. Rougier. 1997a. Effect of temperature on vegetative growth of Beauveria bassiana isolates from different origins. Mycologia 89: 383–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fargues, J., M. Rougier, R. Goujet, N. Smits, C. Coustere, and B. Itier. 1997b. Inactivation of conidia of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus by near-ultraviolet (UVB and UVA) and visible radiation. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 69: 70–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fargues, J., M.C. Bon, S. Manguin, and Y. Couteaudier. 2002. Genetic variability among Paecilomyces fumosoroseus isolates from various geographical and host insect origins based on the rDNA-ITS regions. Mycology Research 106: 1066–1074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Faria, M. and S. Wraight. 2001. Biological control of Bemisia tabaci with fungi. Crop Protection 20: 767–778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fawcett, H.S. 1944. Fungus and bacterial diseases of insects as factors in biological control. Botanical Review 10: 327–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Feng, M.G., T.J. Poprawski, and G.G. Khachatourians. 1994. Production, formulation and application of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana for insect control: Current status. Biocontrol Science and Technology 4: 3–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fransen, J.J. 1990a. Fungi on aphids, thrips and whitefly in the greenhouse environment. Proceedings of the Vth International Colloquium on Invertebrate Pathology and Microbial Control, pp. 376–379, August 20–24, 1990, Adelaide, Australia, Society for Invertebrate Pathology, Knoxville, TN.Google Scholar
  53. Fransen, J.J. 1990b. Natural enemies of whiteflies: Fungi. In D. Gerling, ed., Whiteflies: Their Bionomics, Pest Status and Management, pp. 187–210. Intercept, Andover, UK.Google Scholar
  54. Fransen, J.J. 1993. Integrated pest management in glasshouse ornamentals in the Netherlands: a step by step policy. International Organization of Biological Control Western Palearctic Regional Section Bulletin. 16: 35–38.Google Scholar
  55. Fransen, J.J. 1995. Survival of spores of the entomopathogenic fungus Aschersonia aleyrodis (Deuteromycotina: Coelomycetes) on leaf surfaces. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 65: 73–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Fransen, J.J and J.C. van Lenteren. 1993. Host selection and survival of the parasitoid Encarsia formosa on greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, in the presence of hosts infected with the fungus Aschersonia aleyrodis. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 69: 39–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fransen, J.J. and J.C. van Lenteren. 1994. Survival of the parasitoid Encarsia formosa after treatment of parasitized greenhouse whitefly larvae with fungal spores of Aschersonia aleyrodis. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 71: 235–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fransen, J.J., K. Winkelman, and J.C. van Lenteren. 1987. The differential mortality at various life stages of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), by infection with the fungus Aschersonia aleyrodis (Deuteromycotina: Coelomycetes). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 50: 158–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Galani, G. 1979. Studies on the variation of the pathogenicity of Verticillium lecanii (Zimm.) Viegas to the larvae of Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westw. Analele Instituteului de Cercetari de Protectia Plantelor 25: 243–245.Google Scholar
  60. Galani, G. and L. Almasan. 1984. Depistarea unei epizootii naturale micotice la musculita alba, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westw. Buletinul de Protectia Plantelor 1: 33–36.Google Scholar
  61. Gao, R., Z. Ouyang, Z. Gao, and J. Zheng. 1985. A preliminary report on the application of Aschersonia aleyrodis for the control of citrus whitefly. Chinese Journal of Biological Control 1: 45–46.Google Scholar
  62. Garza Gonzalez, E. 1993. Enemigos naturales de accion microbial de mosquita blanca. In L.A. Rodríguez del Bosque, ed., II Taller sobre control biologico de mosquita blanca, pp. 54–66. SARH. Sinaloa, Mexico.Google Scholar
  63. Garza Gonzalez, E. and H.C. Arredondo Bernal. 1993. Sensibilidad in vitro de adultos de mosquito blanca de las hortalizas Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) a diferentes aislamientos de Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Paecilomyces spp. y Verticillium lecanii (Vuill.). Proceedings of the XVI Congreso Nacional de Control Biologico Sociedad Mexicana de Control Biologico, October 7–8, 1993, Monterrey, N.L., Mexico. Sociedad Mexicana de Control Biologico, Mexico City.Google Scholar
  64. Gindin, G., I. Barash, N. Harari, and B. Raccah. 1994. Effect of endotoxic compounds isolated from Verticillium lecanii on the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Phytoparasitica 22: 189–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gindin, G., N.U. Geschtovt, B. Raccah, and I. Barash. 2000. Pathogenicity of Verticillium lecanii to different developmental stages of the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii. Phytoparasitica 28: 229–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gindin, G. and I.S. Ben-Ze’ev. 1994a. Virulence and persistence of Conidiobolus coronatus and Conidiobolus sp. in glasshouse populations of Bemisia tabaci. International Organization of Biological Control Western Palearctic Regional Section Bulletin 17: 185–188.Google Scholar
  67. Gindin, G. and I.S. Ben-Ze’ev. 1994b. Natural occurrence of and inoculation experiments with Conidiobolus coronatus and Conidiobolus sp. in glasshouse populations of Bemisia tabaci. Phytoparasitica 22: 197–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Goettel, M.S. and G.D. Inglis. 1997. Fungi: Hyphomycetes. In L. A. Lacey, ed., Manual of Techniques in Insect Pathology, pp. 213–249. Academic Press, London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Goettel, M.S., T.J. Poprawski, J.D. Vandenberg, Z. Li, and D.W. Roberts. 1990. Safety to nontarget invertebrates of fungal biocontrol agents. In M. Laird, L.A. Lacey and E.W. Davidson, eds., Safety of Microbial Insecticides, pp. 209–231. CRC Press, Boca Raton.Google Scholar
  70. Grajek, W. 1994. Sporogenesis of the entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii in solid-state cultures. Folia Microbiologica 39: 29–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hall, R.A. 1980. Effect of repeated subculturing on agar and passaging through an insect host on pathogenicity, morphology, and growth rate of Verticillium lecanii. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 36: 216–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hall, R.A. 1981. The fungus Verticillium lecanii as a microbial insecticide against aphids and scales. In H.D. Burges, ed., Microbial Control of Pests and Plant Diseases 1970–1980, pp. 483–498. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  73. Hall, R.A. 1982. Control of whitefly, Trialeurodes and cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii in glasshouses by two isolates of the fungus, Verticillium lecanii. Annals of Applied Biology 10: 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hall, R.A. 1985. Whitefly control by fungi. In N.W. Hussey and N.E.A. Scopes, eds., Biological Pest Control–The Glasshouse Experience, pp. 116–118. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  75. Hall, R.A. and J.P. Latgé. 1980. Etude de quelques facteurs stimulant la formation in vitro des blastospores de Verticillium lecanii (Zimm.) Viegas. Comptes Rendus l’Académie de Séances, Paris 291: 75–78.Google Scholar
  76. Hall, R.A., D. Peterkin, and B. Ali. 1994a. Fungal control of whitefly, Thrips palmi and sugarcane froghopper in Trinidad and Tobago. In Proceedings of the VIth International Colloquium of Invertebrate Pathology and Microbial Control, pp. 277–282, August 28–September 2, 1994, Montpellier, France, Society for Invertebrate Pathology, Knoxville, TN.Google Scholar
  77. Hall, R.A., D. Peterkin, and G.V. Pollard. 1994b. Influence of culture age on rate of fungal spore germination in four entomogenous fungi. Mycology Research 98: 763–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hajek, A.E., S.P. Wraight, and J.D. Vandenberg. 2001. Control of arthropods using pathogenic fungi. In S.B. Pointing and K.D. Hyde, eds., Bio-Exploitation of Filamentous Fungi, pp. 309–347. Fungal Diversity Press, Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  79. Herrera, F., M. Carballo, and P. Shannon. 1999. Eficacia de cepas nativas de hongos entomopatogenos sobre Bemisia tabaci, en el laboratorio. Manejo Integrado de Plagas. 54: 37–43.Google Scholar
  80. Hirte, W.F., I. Glathe, and H. Adam. 1989a. Produktion und Applikation eines mikrobiellen Praeparates auf der Basis von Aschersonia -Sporen. Zentralblatt fur Mikrobiologie 144: 151–162.Google Scholar
  81. Hirte, W.F., C. Walter, M. Grünberg, H. Sermann, and H. Adam. 1989b. Selektion von Pathotypen von Verticillium lecanii für verschiedene tierisch Schaderreger in Gewächshauskulturen und Aspekte der biotechnologischen Massensporenproduktion. Zentralblatt fur Mikrobiologie 144: 405–420.Google Scholar
  82. Hristova, E. 1971. Possibilities of using Encarsia formosa Gahan and Aschersonia aleyrodis Webber in the control of Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood. Acta Horticulturae 17: 396–399.Google Scholar
  83. Humber, R.A. 1997a. Fungi: Identification. In L.A. Lacey, ed., Manual of Techniques in Insect Pathology, pp. 153–185. Academic Press, London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Humber, R.A. 1997b. Fungi: Preservation of cultures. In L. A. Lacey, ed., Manual of Techniques in Insect Pathology, pp. 269–279. Academic Press, London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Humber, R.A. 2002. Collection of entomopathogenic fungal cultures. Catalogue of isolates. United States Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service Publication, ARS-110. ARSEF webpage: http://arsef.fpsnl.cornell.edu.
  86. Hussey, N.W. 1958. Notes on a fungus parasitic on greenhouse whitefly. Plant Pathology 7: 71–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ibrahim, Y.B., T.K. Lim, M.K. Tang, and H.M. Teng. 1993. Influence of temperature, pH and selected growth media on germination, growth and sporulation of Aschersonia placenta and Hypocrella raciborskii. Biocontrol Science and Technology 3: 55–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Inglis, G.D., D.L. Johnson, and M.S. Goettel. 1996. Effects of temperature and thermo regulation on mycosis by Beauveria bassiana in grasshoppers. Biological Control 7: 131–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Jackson, M.A., M.R. McGuire, L.A. Lacey, and S.P. Wraight. 1997. Liquid culture production of desiccation tolerant blastospores of the bioinsecticidal fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. Mycology Research 101: 35–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. James, R.R. 2001. Effects of exogenous nutrients on conidial germination and virulence against the silverleaf whitefly for two Hyphomycetes. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 77: 99–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. James, R.R. 2003. Combining azadirachtin and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) to control Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 96: 25–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. James, R.R. and G.W. Elzen. 2001. Antagonism between Beauveria bassiana and imidacloprid when combined for Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) control. Journal of Economic Entomology 94: 357–361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Jaronski, S.T. and J.C. Lord. 1996. Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Mycotrol WP) for control of whitefly in spring cantaloupes, 1995. Arthropod Management Tests 21: 103.Google Scholar
  94. Jaronski, S.T., J.C. Lord, and R. Paden. 1996. Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Mycotrol® WP) with pyrethroids for control of whitefly in spring cantaloupes. Arthropod Management Tests 21: 102–103.Google Scholar
  95. Jaronski, S.T., J. Lord, J. Rosinska, C. Bradley, K. Hoelmer, G. Simmons, R. Osterlind, C. Brown, R. Staten, and L. Antilla. 1998. Effect of a Beauveria bassiana-based mycoinsecticide on beneficial insects under field conditions. Brighton Crop Protection Conference: Pests & Diseases–1998, Vol. 2. Proceedings of an International Conference, Brighton, UK, 16–19 November 1998, pp. 651–656. British Crop Protection Council, Thornton Heath, UK.Google Scholar
  96. Jaros-Su, J., E. Groden, and J. Zhang. 1999. Effects of selected fungicides and the timing of fungicide application of Beauveria bassiana-induced mortality of the Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Biological Control 15: 259–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Jones, W.A. and T.J. Poprawski. 1996. Bemisia argentifolii parasitized by Eretmocerus sp. is immune to infection by Beauveria bassiana. In T.J. Henneberry, N.C. Toscano, R.M. Faust, and J.R. Coppedge, eds., Silverleaf Whitefly (Formerly Sweetpotato Whitefly, Strain B): 1996 Supplement to the 5-Year National Research and Action Plan, p. 118. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 1996–01.Google Scholar
  98. Kaya, H.K. and L.A. Lacey. 2007. Introduction to microbial control. In L.A. Lacey and H.K. Kaya, eds., Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology: Application and Evaluation of Pathogens for Control of Insects and Other Invertebrate Pests, pp. 3–7. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  99. Kirk, A.A. and L.A. Lacey. 1996. A systematic approach to foreign exploration for natural enemies of Bemisia. In D. Gerling and R. Mayer, eds., Bemisia 1995: Taxonomy, Biology, Damage, Control and Management, pp. 531–533. Intercept, Andover, UK.Google Scholar
  100. Kirk, A.A., L.A. Lacey, and J. Goolsby. 2001. Classical biological control of Bemisia and successful integration of management strategies in the United States. Pages 309–329 in: Virus-Insect-Plant Interactions. K.F. Harris, O.P. Smith, and J.E. Duffus, eds. Academic Press. San Diego, CA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kirk, A.A., L.A. Lacey, N. Roditakis, and J.K. Brown. 1993. The status of Bemisia tabaci (Hom.: Aleyrodidae), Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hom.: Aleyrodidae) and their natural enemies in Crete. Entomophaga 38: 405–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kitazawa, K., I. Fujisawa, and S. Imabayashi. 1984. Isolation of Verticillium lecanii (Zimm.) Viegas affecting aphids and greenhouse whitefly in Japan. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 50: 574–581.Google Scholar
  103. Knowles, T.C. and S.T. Jaronski. 1997. Control of silverleaf whitefly in fall cantaloupe with Beauveria bassiana, 1995. Arthropod Management Tests 22: 115.Google Scholar
  104. Kogan, V.S. and A.A. Serjapin. 1978. Against the greenhouse whitefly: Aschersonia. Zashchita Rastenii 1: 29–31.Google Scholar
  105. Kurogi, S., F. Kuroki, Y. Kawasaki, and K. Nonaka. 1993. Studies on a fungus, Beauveria bassiana, isolated from Thrips parmi [T. palmi] Karny. 1. Pathogenicity to Thrips parmi and Bemisia tabaci and effect of pesticides (including Dichlorvos fenobucarb and Methidathion) on hyphal growth. Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection, Kyushu 39: 111–113.Google Scholar
  106. Labanowski, G.S. and G. Soika. 1999. Effectiveness of microbial and botanical insecticides in the control of Bemisia tabaci and Frankliniella occidentalis on ornamental plants. Bulletin OEPP 29(1–2): 77–80.Google Scholar
  107. Lacey, L. A. and W. M. Brooks. 1997. Initial handling and diagnosis of diseased insects. In L.A. Lacey, ed., Manual of Techniques in Insect Pathology, pp. 1–15. Academic Press, London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Lacey, L.A. and G. Mercadier. 1998. The effect of selected allelochemicals on germination of conidia and blastospores and mycelial growth of the entomopathogenic fungus, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes). Mycopathologia 142: 17–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Lacey, L.A. and A.L. Mesquita. 2002. Interaction of entomopathogenic fungi, insect parasitoids and their hosts. Proceedings VIIIth International Colloquium on Invertebrate Pathology and Microbial Control, August 18–23, 2002, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, pp. 31–35, Society for Invertebrate Pathology, Knoxville, TN.Google Scholar
  110. Lacey, L.A., A.A. Kirk, and R.D. Hennessey. 1993. Foreign exploration for natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci and implementation in integrated control programs in the United States. Proceedings ANPP International Conference on Pests in Agriculture. 1: 351–360. December 7–9, 1993, Montpellier, France, Association Nacionale de Protection des Plantes, Paris, France.Google Scholar
  111. Lacey, L.A., J.J. Fransen, and R. Carruthers. 1996. Global distribution of naturally occurring fungi of Bemisia, their biologies and use as biological control agents. In D. Gerling and R. Mayer, eds., Bemisia 1995: Taxonomy, Biology, Damage, and Management, pp. 401–433. Intercept, Andover, UK.Google Scholar
  112. Lacey, L.A., A.L.M. Mesquita, G. Mercadier, R. Debire, D.J. Kazmer, and F. Leclant. 1997. Acute and sublethal activity of the entomopathogenic fungus, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) on adult Aphelinus asychis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Environmental Entomology 26: 1452–1460.Google Scholar
  113. Lacey, L.A., A.A. Kirk, L. Millar, G. Mercadier, and C. Vidal. 1999. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of conidia and blastospores of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) against Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): Description of a bioassay system allowing prolonged survival of control insects. Biocontrol Science and Technology 9: 9–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Lacey, L.A., R. Frutos, H.K. Kaya, and P. Vail. 2001. Insect pathogens as biological control agents: Do they have a future? Biological Control 21: 230–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Landa, Z. 1984. Ochrana proti molici sklenikove (Trialeurodes vaporarium Westw.) V Programech integrovane ochrany sklenikovych okurek. Sbornik UVTIZ, Zahradnictvi 11: 215–228.Google Scholar
  116. Latgé, J.P. and B. Papierok. 1988. Aphid pathogens. In A.K. Minks and P. Harrewijn, eds., Aphids Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control, Vol. B, pp. 323–335. Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  117. Li, G., Y. Yan, and L. Wang. 1991. Influence of temperature and nutrition on the growth of an entomopathogenic fungus, Verticillium lecanii (Beijing strain). Chinese Journal of Biological Control 7: 115–119.Google Scholar
  118. Liu, T.-X. and C.W. Meister. 2001. Managing Bemisia argentifolii on spring melons with insect growth regulators, entomopathogens and imidacloprid in South Texas. Subtropical Plant Science: Journal of the Rio Grande Valley Horticultural Society 53: 44–48.Google Scholar
  119. Liu, T.-X, P.A. Stansly, A.N. Sparks, Jr., T.C. Knowles, and C.C. Chu. 1999. Application of Mycotrol and Naturalis-L (Beauveria bassiana) for management of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae) on vegetables, cotton and ornamentals in the southern United States. Subtropical Plant Science: Journal of the Rio Grande Valley Horticultural Society 51: 41–48.Google Scholar
  120. Long, D.W., E. Groden, and F.A. Drummond. 2000. Horizontal transmission of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. Agricultural Forest and Entomology 2: 11–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Lopez-Avila, A., C. Cardona Mejia, J. Garcia Gonzalez, F. Rendon, and P. Hernandez. 2001. Reconocimiento e identificacion de enemigos naturales de moscas blancas (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) en Colombia y Ecuador. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia 27: 137–141.Google Scholar
  122. Lourenção, A.L., V.A. Yuki, and S.B. Alves. 1999. Epizootia de Aschersonia cf. goldiana em Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) Biotipo B no Estado de São Paulo. Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil 28: 343–345.Google Scholar
  123. Lourenção, A.L., M.A.C. Miranda, and S.B. Alves. 2001. Ocorrência epizootica de Verticillium lecanii em Bemisia tabaci biotipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) no Estado do Maranhão. Neotropical Entomology 30: 183–185.Google Scholar
  124. Mains, E.B. 1959. North American species of Aschersonia parasitic on Aleyrodidae. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 1: 43–47.Google Scholar
  125. Malsam, O., M. Kilian, E.-C. Oerke, and H.-W. Dehne. 2002. Oils for increased efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae to control whiteflies. Biocontrol Science and Technology 12: 337–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Masuda, T. and O. Kikuchi. 1992. Pathogenicity of Verticillium lecanii isolates to whitefly and aphids. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology 36: 239–245.Google Scholar
  127. Masuda, T. and M. Maeda. 1989. Pathogenicity of a fungus Verticillium lecanii to the whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, in various stages. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology 33: 101–104.Google Scholar
  128. McCoy, C.W., R.A. Samson, and D.G. Boucias. 1988. Entomogenous fungi. In C.M. Ignoffo and N.B. Mandava, eds., Handbook of Natural Pesticides, Vol. V, Microbial Insecticides, Part A: Entomogenous Protozoa and Fungi, pp. 151–236. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  129. Meade, D.L. and D.N. Byrne. 1991. The use of Verticillium lecanii against subimaginal instars of Bemisia tabaci. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 57: 296–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Meekes, E.T.M., S. Van Voorst, N.N. Joosten, J.J. Fransen, and J.C. van Lenteren. 2000. Persistence of the fungal whitefly pathogen, Aschersonia aleyrodis, on three different plant species. Mycology Research 104: 234–1240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Meekes, E.T.M., J.J. Fransen, and J.C. van Lenteren. 2002. Pathogenicity of Aschersonia spp. against whiteflies Bemisia argentifolii and Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 81: 1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Mellín Rosas, M.A. and E. Garza Gonzalez. 1993. Sensibilidad in vitro de estados ninfales de mosquita blanca Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) a 12 aislamientos de Paecilomyces spp. Proceedings of the XVI Congreso Nacional de Control Biologico Sociedad Mexicana de Control Biologico, Monterrey, NL, Mexico. October 7–8, 1993. Sociedad Mexicana de Control Biologico, Mexico City.Google Scholar
  133. Mesquita, A.L.M., L.A. Lacey, C.S. Ceianu, and R. Debire. 1999. Predatory and parasitic activity of Aphelinus asychis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) following exposure to the entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) under different humidity regimes. Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil 28: 661–673.Google Scholar
  134. Milner, R.J. and G.G. Lutton. 1986. Dependence of Verticillium lecanii (Fungi: Hyphomycetes) on high humidities for infection and sporulation using Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) as host. Environmental Entomology 15: 380–382.Google Scholar
  135. Mohamed, M.I. and R.V. Varma. 1992. Fungal pathogens of Eligma narcissus indica Roth (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the Ailanthus defoliator, with special reference to Paecilomyces farinosus and P. fumosoroseus. Phytophaga 4: 101–109.Google Scholar
  136. Mor, H., G. Gindin, I.S. Ben-Ze’ev, B. Raccah, N.U. Geschtovt, N. Ajtkhozhina, and I. Barash. 1996. Diversity among isolates of Verticillium lecanii as expressed by DNA polymorphism and virulence towards Bemisia tabaci. Phytoparasitica 24: 111–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Negasi, A., B.L. Parker, and M. Brownbridge. 1998. Screening and bioassay of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii. Insect Science and its Application 18: 37–44.Google Scholar
  138. Nene, Y.L. 1973. Note on a fungus parasite of Bemisia tabaci Genn., a vector of several plant viruses. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science 43: 514–516.Google Scholar
  139. Nier, T., F. Rivera, J.C. Bermudez, Y. Dominguez, C. Benavides, and M. Ulloa. 1991. Primer reporte en Mexico del aislamento de Verticillium lecanii a partir de la mosquito blanca e pruebas de patogenicidad in vitro sobre este insecto. Revista Mexicana de Micologia 7: 149–156.Google Scholar
  140. Obornik, M., R. Stouthamer, E. Meekes, and M. Schilthuittzen. 1999. Molecular characterization and phylogeny of the entomopathogenic fungus Aschersonia spp. Plant Protection Science 35: 1–9.Google Scholar
  141. Oho, N. 1967. Possible utilization of Aschersonia aleyrodis for control of citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri Ashmead. Proceedings Joint US-Japan Seminar on Microbial Control of Insect Pests, Fukuoka, April 21–23, pp. 119–128.Google Scholar
  142. Ohta, M., A. Ozawa, and H. Kobayashi. 1998. The efficacy of a Paecilomyces fumosoroseus preparation against whitefly on tomato in the greenhouse [in Japan]. Proceedings of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society 45: 181–184.Google Scholar
  143. Olson, D.L. and R.D. Oetting. 1999. The efficacy of mycoinsecticides of Beauveria bassiana against silverleaf whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on poinsettia. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology 16: 179–185.Google Scholar
  144. Orozco-Santos, M., J. Farias-Larios, J. Lopez-Perez, and N.R. Ramirez-Vazquez. 2000. Uso de Beauveria bassiana para el control de Bemisia argentifolii en melon. Manejo Integrado de Plagas, 56: 45–51.Google Scholar
  145. Osborne, L.S. and Z. Landa. 1992. Biological control of whiteflies with entomopathogenic fungi. Florida Entomologist 75: 456–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Osborne, L.S. and Z. Landa. 1994. Utilization of the entomogenous fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. International Organization of Biological Control Western Palearctic Regional Section Bulletin 17: 201–206.Google Scholar
  147. Osborne L.S., K. Hoelmer, and D. Gerling. 1990a. Prospects for biological control of Bemisia tabaci. International Organization of Biological Control Western Palearctic Regional Section Bulletin 13: 153–160.Google Scholar
  148. Osborne, L.S., G.K. Storey, C.W. McCoy, and J.F. Walter. 1990b. Potential for controlling the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, with the fungus, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. Proceedings of the Vth International Colloquium on Invertebrate Pathology and Microbial Control. pp. 386–390. August 20–24, 1990, Adelaide, Australia, Society for Invertebrate Pathology, Knoxville, TN.Google Scholar
  149. Ota, M., A. Ozawa, and H. Kobayashi. 1999. Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana preparation against whitefly on tomato. Annual Report of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society, 46: 109–112.Google Scholar
  150. Petch, T. 1921. Studies on entomogenous fungi, II: The genera Hypocrella and Aschersonia. Annals of the Royal Botanical Garden of Peradeniya 7: 167–278.Google Scholar
  151. Petch, T. 1925. Entomogenous fungi: Additions and corrections. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 10: 190–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Peterkin, D. and R.A. Hall. 1994. The effect of accelerated spore germination on virulence of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. Proceedings of the VIth International Colloquium on Invertebrate Pathology and Microbial Control. 2: 128. August 28–September 2, 1994, Montpellier, France, Society for Invertebrate Pathology, Knoxville, TN.Google Scholar
  153. Ponomarenko, N.G., N.A. Prilepskaja, M. Murvanidze, and L.A. Stoljarova. 1975. Aschersonia against whitefly. Zashchita Rastenii 6: 44–45.Google Scholar
  154. Poprawski, T.J. 1999. Control of Bemisia argentifolii on collards using different formulations and rates of Beauveria bassiana, 1997. Arthropod Management Tests 24: 122–123.Google Scholar
  155. Poprawski, T.J. and L.A. Lacey. 2000. European Parasite Laboratory - European Biological Control Laboratory, Sèvres, Béhoust, and Montpellier, France. In J.R. Coulson, P.V. Vail, M.E. Dix, D.A. Nordlund and W.C. Kauffman, eds., 110 Years of Biological Control Research and Development in the United States Department of Agriculture: 1883–1993, pp. 329–331. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service.Google Scholar
  156. Poprawski, T.J. and W.J. Jones. 2001. Host plant effects on activity of the mitosporic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus against two populations of Bemisia whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Mycopathologia 151: 11–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Poprawski, T.J., P.H. Robert, I. Majchrowicz, and G. Boivin. 1985. Susceptibility of Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) to eleven isolates of entomopathogenic Hyphomycetes. Environmental Entomology 14: 557–561.Google Scholar
  158. Poprawski, T.J., J.C. Legaspi, and P.E. Parker. 1998. Influence of entomopathogenic fungi on Serangium parcesetosum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), an important predator of whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Environmental Entomology 27: 785–795.Google Scholar
  159. Poprawski, T.J., S.M. Greenberg, and M.A. Ciomperlik. 2000. Effect of host plant on Beauveria bassiana- and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus-induced mortality of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Environmental Entomology 29: 1048–1053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Ramakers, P.M.J. and R.A. Samson. 1984. Aschersonia aleyrodis, a fungal pathogen of whitefly. II. Application as a biological insecticide in glasshouses. Zeitschrift fuer Angewandte Entomologie 97: 1–8.Google Scholar
  161. Ramos, E.Q., S.B. Alves, M.R. Tanzini, and R.B. Lopes. 2000. Susceptibilidade de Bemisia tabaci a Beauveria bassiana en condiciones de laboratorio. Manejo Integrado de Plagas 56: 65–69.Google Scholar
  162. Rao, N.V. and A.S. Reddy. 1992. The natural enemies of cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius - a review. Agriculture Review 13: 12–20.Google Scholar
  163. Rao, N.V., A.S. Reddy, and K.T. Rao. 1989. Natural enemies of cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius in relation to host population and weather factors. Journal of Biological Control 3: 10–12.Google Scholar
  164. Ravensberg, W.J., M. Malais, and D.A. van der Schaaf. 1990a. Applications of Verticillium lecanii in tomatoes and cucumbers to control whitefly and thrips. International Organization of Biological Control Western Palearctic Regional Section Bulletin/Bulletin OILB SROP 13: 173–178.Google Scholar
  165. Ravensberg, W.J., M. Malais, and D.A. van der Schaaf. 1990b. Verticillium lecanii as a microbial insecticide against glasshouse whitefly. Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference 1: 265–268. November 19–22, 1990, Brighton, UK. British Crop Protection Council, Thornton Heath, UK.Google Scholar
  166. Riba, G. and L. Entcheva. 1984. Influence de l’hygrométrie ambiante sur l’aggressivité comparée de plusieurs Hyphomycetes entomopathogénes a l’égard de l’aleurode des serres, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westw.). Comptes Rendus Séances l’Académie d’Agriculture, France 70: 521–526.Google Scholar
  167. Ruiz-Vega, J. and T. Aquino-Bolaños. 1999. Manejo de Bemisia tabaci mediante barreras vivas y Paecilomyces en Oaxaca, Mexico. Manejo Integrado de Plagas 52: 68–73.Google Scholar
  168. Ruiz V.J. and Z.J. Medina. 2001. Avances en el manejo integrado de Bemisia tabaci en tomate y chile en Oaxaca, Mexico. Manejo Integrado de Plagas 59: 34–40.Google Scholar
  169. Rushtapakornchai, W. and P. Petchwichit. 1996. Efficiency of some insecticides for controlling tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci and leaf miner Liriomyza trifolii on tomato. Kaen Kaset Khon Kaen Agriculture Journal 24: 184–189.Google Scholar
  170. Ryckewaert, P. and C. Alauzet. 2002. The natural enemies of Bemisia argentifolii in Martinique. BioControl 47: 115–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Saito, T. 1992. Control of Thrips palmi and Bemisia tabaci by a mycoinsecticidal preparation of Verticillium lecanii. Proceedings Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society 39: 209–210.Google Scholar
  172. Saito, T. 1993. Control of two whitefly species, Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum, by a preparation of Verticillium lecanii. Proceedings of the Kanto Tosan Plant Protection Society 40: 221–222.Google Scholar
  173. Sakamoto M., Y. Inove, and J. Aoki. 1985. Effect of light on the conidiation of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan 26: 499–509.Google Scholar
  174. Samson, R.A. 1974. Paecilomyces and some allied Hyphomycetes. Studies in Mycology 6: 31–41.Google Scholar
  175. Samson, R.A. and M.C. Rombach. 1985. Biology of the fungi Verticillium and Aschersonia. In N.W. Hussey and N.E.A. Scopes, eds., Biological Pest Control–The Glasshouse Experience, pp. 34–42. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  176. Sandoval-Coronado, C.F., H.A. Luna-Olvera, K. Arevalo-Nino, M.A. Jackson, T.J. Poprawski, and L.J. Galan-Wong. 2001. Drying and formulation of blastospores of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Hyphomycetes) produced in two different liquid media. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 17: 423–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Shipp, J.L., Y. Zhang, D.W.A. Hunt, and G. Ferguson. 2003. Influence of humidity and greenhouse microclimate on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) for control of greenhouse arthropod pests. Enviromental Entomology 32: 1154–1163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Silvie, P. and B. Papierok. 1991. Les ennemis naturels d’insectes du cotonnier au Tchad: premières données sur les champignons de l’ordre des Entomophthorales. Coton et Fibres Tropicales 46: 293–308.Google Scholar
  179. Smith, P. 1993. Control of Bemisia tabaci and the potential of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus as a biopesticide. Biocontrol News and Information 14: 71N–78N.Google Scholar
  180. Smith, P.A. 1997. Oil and emulsion formulations of a microbial control agent increase the potency against a wider range of pest life stages. Phytoparasitica 25: 93S–100S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Smits, N., M. Rougier, J. Fargues, R. Goujet, and R. Bonhomme. 1996. Inactivation of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus conidia by diffuse and total solar radiation. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 21: 167–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Smits, N., J. Fargues, and M. Rougier. 1997. Modelling the persistence of quiescent conidia of the entomopathogenic hyphomycete Paecilomyces fumosoroseus exposed to solar radiation. Biocontrol Science and Technology 7: 365–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Sosa-Gomez, D.R., F. Moscardi, and M. Santos. 1997. Bemisia spp. na cultura da soja: ocorrência, controle quimico e incidência de fungo entomopatogênico Paecilomyces spp. 16th Congresso Brasileiro de Entomologia, Resumos, p. 144. SEB/Embrapa-CNPMF, Salvador, Brazil. March, 2 to 7 of 1997, Salvador, Brazil.Google Scholar
  184. Spassova, P. 1980. Investigation on the entomopathogenic fungus Aschersonia sp. Horticultural and Viticultural Science 17: 77–84.Google Scholar
  185. Spassova, P., E. Hristova, and E. S. Elenkov. 1980. Pathogenicity of various species of fungi of the genus Aschersonia to the larvae of the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westw.) on tomatoes and cucumbers. Horticulture Viticulture Science 17: 70–75.Google Scholar
  186. Steenberg, T. and R.A. Humber. 1999. Entomopathogenic potential of Verticillium and Acremonium species (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 73: 309–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Steinberg, S. and H. Prag. 1994. Efficacy of the fungus Aschersonia aleyrodis and the coccinellid predator Delphastus pusillus, used to control Bemisia tabaci in greenhouse cucumber. Bemisia Newsletter 8: 33.Google Scholar
  188. Sterk, G., K. Bolckmans, R. de Jonghe, L. de Wael, and J. Vermeulen. 1995a. Side-effects of the microbial insecticide PreFeRal WG (Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, strain Apopka 97) on Bombus terrestris. Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent 60: 713–717.Google Scholar
  189. Sterk, G., K. Bolckmans, M. van de Veire, B. Sels, and W. Stepman. 1995b. Side-effects of the microbial insecticide PreFeRal (Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, strain Apopka 97) on different species of beneficial arthropods. Mededelingen–Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent 60: 719–724.Google Scholar
  190. Sterk, G., K. Bolckmans, and J. Eyal. 1996. A new microbial insecticide, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus strain Apopka 97, for the control of the greenhouse whitefly. Brighton Crop Protection Conference: Pests & Diseases, Vol. 2. Proceedings of an International Conference, Brighton, UK, November 18–21, 1996, pp. 461–466. British Crop Protection Council, Thornton Heath, UK.Google Scholar
  191. Sütterlin, S., G.J. Van der Mey, and J.C. Van Lenteren. 1991. Distribution in space and time of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) on gerbera: Does host plant architecture influence the dispersal and distribution of the whitefly? Proceedings of the Experimental and Applied Entomology Section, Netherlands Entomological Society 2: 115–120.Google Scholar
  192. Tigano-Milani, M.S., M.R. de Faria, I. Martins, and R.E. Lecuona. 1992. Ocorrência natural de Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill., Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch.) Sorok. e Paecilomyces sp. em solos de diferentes regiões do Brasil. Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil 22: 391–393.Google Scholar
  193. Tigano-Milani, M.S., R.J. Honeycutt, L.A. Lacey, R. Assis, M. McClelland, and B.W.S. Sobral. 1995. Genetic variability of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus strains revealed by molecular markers. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 65: 274–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Vandenberg, J.D., A.M. Shelton, and S.P. Wraight. 2007. Application and evaluation of entomopathogens in crucifers and cucurbits. In L.A. Lacey and H.K. Kaya, eds., Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology: Application and Evaluation of Pathogens for Control of Insects and Other Invertebrate Pests, pp. 361–374. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  195. van der Schaaf, D.A., W.J. Ravensberg, and M. Malais. 1991. Verticillium lecanii as a microbial insecticide against whitefly. International Organization of Biological Control Western Palearctic Regional Section Bulletin 14: 120–123.Google Scholar
  196. van Lenteren, J.C. and L. P.J.J. Noldus. 1990. Whitefly-plant relationships: behavioural and ecological aspects. In D. Gerling, ed., Whiteflies: Their Bionomics, Pest Status and Management, pp. 47–89. Intercept, Andover, UK.Google Scholar
  197. Vega, F.E., P.F. Dowd, M.R. McGuire, M.A. Jackson, and T.C. Nelsen. 1997. In vitro effects of secondary plant compounds on germination of blastospores of the entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 70: 209–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Vestergaard, S., A. Cherry, S. Keller, and M. Goettel. 2003. Safety of Hyphomycete fungi as microbial control agents. In H.M.T. Hokkanen and A.E. Hajek, eds., Environmental Impacts of Microbial Insecticides: Need and Methods for Risk Assessment. pp. 35–62. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  199. Vicentini, S., M. Faria, and M.R.V. de Oliveira. 2001. Screening of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) isolates against nymphs of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) Biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) with description of a new bioassay method. Neotropical Entomology 30: 97–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Vidal, C., J. Fargues, and L.A. Lacey. 1997a. Intraspecific variability of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus: effect of temperature on vegetative growth. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 70: 18–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Vidal, C., L.A. Lacey, and J. Fargues. 1997b. Pathogenicity of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) against Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) with a description of a bioassay method. Journal of Economic Entomology 90: 765–772.Google Scholar
  202. Vidal, C., J. Fargues, L.A. Lacey, and M.A. Jackson. 1998a. Effect of various liquid culture media on morphology, growth, propagule production, and pathogenic activity to Bemisia argentifolii of the entomopathogenic Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. Mycopathologia 143: 33–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Vidal, C., L.S. Osborne, L.A. Lacey, and J. Fargues. 1998b. Effect of host plant on the potential of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for controlling the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in greenhouses. Biological Control 12: 191–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Wraight, S.P., 1997. Evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi in field crops: methods for research and development. In Hacia un Futuro Agricola Sostenible, Proceedings of the XX Congreso Nacional de Control Biológico, pp. 241–24. November 13–14, 1997, Guadalajara, Mexico. Sociedad Mexicana de Control Biologico, Mexico City.Google Scholar
  205. Wraight, S.P. and R.I. Carruthers. 1999. Production, delivery, and use of mycoinsecticides for control of insect pests of field crops. In F.R. Hall and J. Menn, eds., Methods in Biotechnology, Vol. 5, Biopesticides: Use and Delivery, pp. 233–269. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.Google Scholar
  206. Wraight, S.P., R.I. Carruthers, and C.A. Bradley. 1996. Development of entomopathogenic fungi for microbial control of whiteflies of the Bemisia tabaci complex. Proceedings V Siconbiol Simpósio de Controle Biológico, Foz. de Iguacu, Brazil, June 9–14, 1996, pp. 28–34. EMBRAPA/CNPSo, Foz do Iguaçú, Brazil. Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria–Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja, Londrina, PR, Brazil.Google Scholar
  207. Wraight, S.P., R.I. Carruthers, C.A. Bradley, S.T. Jaronski, L.A. Lacey, P. Wood, and S. Galaini-Wraight. 1998. Pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungi Paecilomyces spp. and Beauveria bassiana against the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 71: 217–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Wraight, S.P., R.I. Carruthers, S.T. Jaronski, C.A. Bradley, C.J. Garza, and S. Galaini-Wraight. 2000. Evaluation of the entompathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus for microbial control of the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii. Biological Control 17: 203–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Wraight, S.P., M.A. Jackson, and S.L. De Kock. 2001. Production, stabilization, and formulation of fungal biocontrol agents. In T. Butt, C. Jackson, and N. Magan, eds., Fungi as Biocontrol Agents: Progress, Problems and Potential, pp. 253–287. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Wraight, S.P., G.D. Inglis, and M.S. Goettel. 2007. Fungi. In L.A. Lacey and H. K. Kaya, eds., Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology: Application and Evaluation of Pathogens for Control of Insects and Other Invertebrate Pests, pp. 223–248. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  211. Yen, D.F. and Y.T. Tsai. 1969. Entomogenous fungi of Homoptera in Taiwan. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan 11: 1–10.Google Scholar
  212. Zaki, F.N. 1998. Efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Bals), against Aphis craccivora Koch and Bemisia tabaci Gennadius. Journal of Applied Entomology 122: 397–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Zare, R. and W. Gams. 2001. A revision of Verticillium section Prostrata. IV. The genera Lecanicillium and Simplicillium gen. nov. Nova Hedwigia 73: 1–50.Google Scholar
  214. Zimmermann, G. 1993. The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and its potential as a biocontrol agent. Pesticide Science 37: 375–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence A. Lacey
    • 1
  • Stephen P. Wraight
    • 2
  • Alan A. Kirk
    • 3
  1. 1.Yakima Agricultural Research CenterUSDA-ARSWapatoUSA
  2. 2.Plant, Soil, and Nutrition LaboratoryUSDA-ARSIthacaUSA
  3. 3.European Biological Control LaboratoryUSDA-ARSFrance

Personalised recommendations