Foreign Exploration for Insect Natural Enemies of Bemisia for Use in Biological Control in the USA: A Successful Program

  • Alan A. Kirk
  • Lawrence A. Lacey
  • John Goolsby
Part of the Progress in Biological Control book series (PIBC, volume 4)

European Biological Control Laboratory scientists (USDA-ARS) and collaborators sent 130 shipments of Bemisia species and natural enemies from 28 countries to the Mission Biological Control Laboratory (MBCL) in Mission Texas. More than 235 collections resulted in 13 species of parasitoids and several predators for evaluation in the USA. Climate modeling software was used to focus on collecting areas with climates similar to Arizona, California and Texas. Field crops, glasshouse crops and weeds were searched and many host plant species yielded parasitized Bemisia. Field parasitism by Bemisia parasitoids was shown to be 39–44% in Spain and 0–67% in Thailand. Taxonomists identified Bemisia biotypes, parasitoids and predators; geneticists characterized Bemisia and natural enemy species. This information was used for evaluation, release, and experimentation.

Keywords

Steam Shipping Electrophoresis Malaysia Dura 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan A. Kirk
    • 1
  • Lawrence A. Lacey
    • 2
  • John Goolsby
    • 3
  1. 1.European Biological Control LaboratoryUSDA-ARSFrance
  2. 2.Yakima Agricultural Research CenterUSDA-ARSWapatoUSA
  3. 3.Beneficial Insects Research UnitUSDA-ARSWeslacoUSA

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