Functional Identification of GDP-Fucose Synthase Gene in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

  • Mari Mochimaru
  • Hajime Masukawa
  • Takashi Maoka
  • Shinichi Takaichi
Conference paper


To elucidate the biosynthetic pathways of carotenoids, especially myxol 2′-fucosides in cyanobacteria, an Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 deletion mutant was analyzed that was proposed to be lacking GDP-fucose synthase (WcaG, All4826). The mutant contained polar carotenoid glycosides and also free myxol. Their glycoside moiety was identified to be rhamnose, isomer of fucose, by FD-MS and 1HNMR, instead of the usual fucose. This result suggests that in the mutant, fucose is not synthesized, and rhamnose is bound to myxol as a substrate by fucosyltransferase, so that all4826 is a functional gene for GDP-fucose synthase. We also identified a β-carotene hydroxylase, CrtR (Alr4009), in Anabaena 7120 that catalyzed deoxymyxol to myxol.


Carotenoid cyanobacteria Anabaena myxol wcaG crtR 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aakermann T, Skulberg OM, Liaaen-Jensen S (1992) A comparison of the carotenoids of strains of Oscillatoria and Spirulina (cyanobacteria). Biochem Syst Ecol 20:761-769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Elhai J, Vepritskiy A, Muro-Pastor AM, Flores E, Wolk CP (1997) Reduction of conjugal transfer efficiency by three restriction activities of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. J Bacteriol 179:1998-2005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Lagarde D, Vermaas W (1999) The zeaxanthin biosynthesis enzyme β-carotene hydroxylase is involved in myxoxanthophyll synthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. FEBS Lett 454:247-251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Linden H, Vioque A, Sandmann G (1993) Isolation of a carotenoid biosynthesis gene coding for ζ-carotene desaturase from Anabaena PCC 7120 by heterologous complementation. FEMS Microbiol Lett 106:99-104.Google Scholar
  5. Masukawa H, Mochimaru M, Sakurai H (2002) Disruption of the uptake hydrogenase gene, but not of the bidirectional hydrogenase gene, leads to enhanced photobiological hydrogen production by the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 58:618-624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Mochimaru M, Masukawa H, Takaichi S (2005) The cyano-bacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 has two distinct β-carotene ketolases: CrtO for echinenone and CrtW for ketomyxol synthesis. FEBS Lett 579:6111-6114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Mohamed HE, van de Meene AML, Roberson RW, Vermaas WFJ (2005) Myxoxanthophyll is required for normal cell wall structure and thylakoid organization in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. J Bacteriol 187:6883-6892.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Takaichi S, Mochimaru M (2007) Carotenoids and carotenogenesis in cyanobacteria: Unique ketocarotenoids and carotenoid glycosides. Cell Mol Life Sci 64: 2607-2619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Takaichi S, Mochimaru M, Maoka T, Katoh H (2005) Myxol and 4-ketomyxol 2′-fucosides, not rhamnosides, from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102, and proposal for the biosynthetic pathway of carotenoids. Plant Cell Physiol 46:497-504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Takaichi S, Mochimaru M, Maoka T (2006) Presence of free myxol and 4-hydroxymyxol and absence of myxol glycosides in Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413, and proposal of a biosynthetic pathway of carotenoids. Plant Cell Physiol 47:211-216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mari Mochimaru
    • 1
  • Hajime Masukawa
    • 2
  • Takashi Maoka
    • 3
  • Shinichi Takaichi
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Natural SciencesKomazawa UniversityTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesKanagawa UniversityHiratsukaJapan
  3. 3.Research Institute for Production DevelopmentKyotoJapan
  4. 4.Department of BiologyNippon Medical SchoolKawasakiJapan

Personalised recommendations