Easily Damaged Integument of Some Sawflies (Hymenoptera) is Part of a Defence Strategy Against Predators

Abstract

During evolution insects have developed an impressive set of mechanisms to defend themselves against natural enemies. This includes adaptations in their phenology, behaviour, morphology, physiology, and chemistry (Evans and Schmidt 1990). Typically, at least two such traits occur jointly, so that one can speak about a real defence strategy. Yet, defensive traits per definition increase an insect’s fitness, but taken alone one trait may be disadvantageous. A new kind of defence strategy was discovered recently in larvae of some sawflies (which are herbivorous Hymenoptera) of the family Tenthredinidae. So far unknown in other insects, it was called easy bleeding and defined as “a low mechanical resistance of the whole body integument, by which slight mechanical damage of the integument is enough to provoke the release of hemolymph at this given spot” (Boevé and Schaffner 2003; Fig. 2.1).

Keywords

Gall Eter Alkaloid Chitin Lution 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barker, A. (2006) Further descriptions of Dolerus larvae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), with notes on larval identification and feeding habits. In: Recent sawfly research: Synthesis and prospects, ed. by Blank, S.M., Schmidt, S. and Taeger, A. Keltern: Goecke & Evers, pp. 83–96.Google Scholar
  2. Benson, R.B. (1950) An introduction to the natural history of British sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta). Trans. Soc. British Entomol. 10: 45–142.Google Scholar
  3. Blum, M.S. and Sannasi, A. (1974) Reflex bleeding in the lampyrid Photinus pyralis: defensive function. J. Insect. Physiol. 20: 451–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boevé, J.-L. (1988) Stratégies defensives des larves de nématines (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae) vis-à-vis de leurs prédateurs. PhD Thesis, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles.Google Scholar
  5. Boevé, J.-L. (2008) Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). In: Encyclopedia of Entomology, Second Edition, Volume 4, ed. by Capinera J.L. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 3252–3257.Google Scholar
  6. Boevé, J.-L. and Müller, C. (2005) Defence effectiveness of easy bleeding sawfly larvae towards invertebrate and avian predators. Chemoecology 15: 51–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boevé, J.-L. and Pasteels, J.M. (1985) Modes of defence in nematine sawfly larvae. J. Chem. Ecol. 11: 1019–1035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boevé, J.-L. and Schaffner, U. (2003) Why does the larval integument of some sawfly species disrupt so easily? The harmful haemolymph hypothesis. Oecologia 134: 104–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boevé, J.-L., Ducarme, V., Mertens, T., Bouillard, P. and Angeli, S. (2004) Surface structure, model and mechanism of an insect integument adapted to be damaged easily J. Nanobiotechnology 2:10 (11pp.).Google Scholar
  10. , Boevé J.-L., Heilporn, S., Dettner, K. and Francke, W. (2000) The secretion of the ventral glands in Cladius, Priophorus and Trichiocampus sawfly larvae. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 28: 857–864.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burret, M., Boevé, J.-L., Barker, A. and Spindler-Barth, M. (2005) Structure and mechanical strength of larval cuticle of sawflies capable of “easy bleeding” – a defence strategy against predators evolved in Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera). Tissue Cell 37: 67–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eisner, T. (1994) Integumental slime and wax secretion: defensive adaptations of sawfly larvae. J. Chem. Ecol. 20: 2743–2749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Evans, D.L. and Schmidt, J.O. (eds) (1990) Insect Defences: Adaptive mechanisms and strategies of prey and predators. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press.Google Scholar
  14. Gfeller, H., Schlunegger, U.P., Schaffner, U., Boevé, J.-L. and Ujvary, I. (1995) Analysis of the chemical defence system in an insect larva by tandem mass spectrometry. J. Mass Spectrom. 30: 1291–1295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Heads, P.A. and Lawton, J.H. (1985) Bracken, ants and extrafloral nectaries. III. How insect herbivores avoid ant predation. Ecol. Entomol. 10: 29–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hepburn, H.R. (1985) Structure of the integument. In: Comprehensive insect physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology, vol. 3., ed. by Kerkut, G.A. and Gilbert, L.I. Oxford: Pergamon Press, pp. 1–58.Google Scholar
  17. Hepburn, H.R. and Joffé, I. (1976) On the material properties of insect exoskeletons. In: The Insect Integument, ed. by Hepburn H.R. Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, pp. 207–235.Google Scholar
  18. Hollande, A.C. (1911) L’autohémorrhée ou le rejet du sang chez les insectes (toxicologie du sang). Arch. Anat. Microsc. 13: 171–318.Google Scholar
  19. Leblanc, L. and Goulet, H. (1992). Descriptions of larvae of eight nearctic species of Dolerus (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) with focus on six Equisetum-feeding species from the Ottawa region. Can. Ent. 124: 999–1014.Google Scholar
  20. Lorenz, H. and Kraus, M. (1957) Die Larvalsystematik der Blattwespen (Tenthredinoidea und Megalodontoidea). Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.Google Scholar
  21. Müller, C. and Brakefield, P.M. (2003) Analysis of a chemical defence in sawfly larvae: easy bleeding targets predatory wasps in late summer. J. Chem. Ecol. 29: 2683–2694.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Müller, C., Agerbirk, N., Olsen, C.E., Boevé, J.-L., Schaffner, U. and Brakefield, P.M. (2001) Sequestration of host plant glucosinolates in the defensive haemolymph of the sawfly Athalia rosae. J. Chem. Ecol. 27: 2505–2516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Müller, C., Boevé, J.-L. and Brakefield, P.M. (2002) Host plant derived feeding deterrence towards ants in the turnip sawfly Athalia rosae. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 104: 153–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nyman, T., Widmer, A. and Roininen, H. (2000) Evolution of gall morphology and host-plant association in willow-feeding sawflies (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). Evolution 54: 526–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Ohara, Y., Nagasaka, K. and Ohsaki, N. (1993) Warning coloration in sawfly Athalia rosae larva and concealing coloration in butterfly Pieris rapae larva feeding on similar plants evolved through individual selection. Res. Popul. Ecol. 35: 223–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Percy, J.E., Blomquist, G.J. and MacDonald, J.A. (1983) The wax-secreting glands of Eriocampa ovata L. (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae): ultrastructural observations and chemical composition of the wax. Can. J. Zool. 61: 1797–1804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Prieto, J.M., Schaffner, U., Barker, A., Braca, A., Siciliano, T. and Boevé, J.-L. (2007) Sequestration of furostanol saponins by Monophadnus sawfly larvae. J. Chem. Ecol. 33: 513–524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sägesser, H. and Lüscher, M. (1959) Über die Orientierung der Larve von Rhadinoceraea micans Kl. (Irisblattwespe). Rev. Suisse Zool. 66: 343–346.Google Scholar
  29. Schaffner, U., Boevé, J.-L., Gfeller, H. and Schlunegger, U.P. (1994) Sequestration of Veratrum alkaloids by specialist Rhadinoceraea nodicornis Konow (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae) and its ecoethological implications. J. Chem. Ecol. 20: 3233–3250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Spindler-Barth, M., Burret, M. and Spindler, K.-D. (2005) “Easy bleeding” bearing relations to special cuticle structures in sawfly larvae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). Entomol. Gener. 27: 257–268.Google Scholar
  31. Togashi, I. and Nagase, K. (1992) Description of the larva of Eriocampa babai Togashi (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae). Jpn. J. Entomol. 60: 329–331.Google Scholar
  32. Vlieger, L., Brakefield, P.M. and Müller, C. (2004) Effectiveness of the defence mechanism of the sawfly, Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera; Tenthredinidae), against predation by lizards. Bull. Entomol. Res. 94: 283–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Whitman, D.W., Blum, M.S. and Alsop, D.W. (1990) Allomones: chemicals for defence. In: Insect Defences: Adaptive mechanisms and strategies of prey and predators, ed. by Evans, D.L. and Schmidt, J.O. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press, pp. 23–61.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Département d’Entomologie, IRSNB-KBINRoyal Belgian Institute of Natural SciencesBruxellesBelgium

Personalised recommendations