Sampling the Adult Resting Population

Animal bait catches (see Chap. 6) usually catch only unfed females in search of a blood-meal and the choice of bait species will in many cases determine the species of mosquito sampled. Attractant traps (Chap. 11) also predominantly sample host seeking females, and may often attract only certain species. Non-attractant traps (Chap. 8) give less biased collections of mosquitoes and, at least theoretically, should sample all species more or less equally. However, they only sample the proportion of the population that is active and airborne, which again mainly comprises unfed females, although these may not all be actively host seeking. Non-attractant traps also sample the active proportion of the male population better than attractant traps. Adult mosquitoes probably spend a majority of their time resting in natural or man-made shelters, and are thus unavailable to be sampled using bait catches, or attractant and non-attractant traps. Resting collections sample unfed females, including those not actively host seeking, both blood-fed and gravid females and also males. Resting collections therefore provide much additional information and will yield samples of the population that more accurately represent the sex ratio, age structure and physiological condition of the population as a whole.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aitken THG, Worth CB, Tikasingh ES (1968) Arbovirus studies in bush bush for-est, Trinidad, W.I., September 1959-December 1964, III. Entomological stud-ies. Am J Trop Med Hyg 17: 253-268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ameneshewa B, Service MW (1996) Resting habits of Anopheles arabiensis in the Awash river valley of Ethiopia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 90: 515-521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Amerasinghe PH, Amerasinghe FP, Konradsen F, Fonseka KT, Wirtz RA (1999) Malaria vectors in a traditional dry zone village in Sri Lanka. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60: 421-429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anil Prakash, Bhattacharyya DR, Mohapatra PK, Mahanta J (1997) Breeding and day resting habitats of Anopheles dirus in Assam, India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 28: 610-614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Anil Prakash, Bhattacharyya DR, Mohapatra PK, Mahanta J (1998) Investigation on malaria vectors and mosquito fauna in South Tripura district, Tripura state. Indian J Malariol 35: 151-159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ardö P (1958) On the feeding habits of Scandinavian mosquitoes. Opusc Entomol 23: 171-191Google Scholar
  7. Arredondo-Jiménez JI, Bown DN, Rodriguez MH, Loyola EG (1995) Control of Anopheles albimanus mosquitos in southern Mexico by spraying their pre-ferred indoor resting sites. Bull World Health Organ 73: 329-337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Arnold AJ, Needham PH, Stevenson JH (1973) A self-powered portable insect suction sampler and its use to assess the effects of azinphos methyl and endo-sulfan on blossom beetle populations on oil seed rape. Ann Appl Biol 75: 229-233Google Scholar
  9. Arunachalam N, Samuel PP, Hiriyan J, Thenmozhi V, Gajanana A (2004) Japa-nese encephalitis in Kerala, south India: can Mansonia (Diptera: Culicidae) play a supplemental role in transmission? J Med Entomol 41: 456-461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ashford DA, Savage HM, Hajjeh RA, McReady J, Bartholomew DM, Spiegel RA, Vorndam V, Clark GG, Gubler DG (2003) Outbreak of dengue fever in Palau, Western Pacific: risk factors for infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69: 135-140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bahang Z, Saafi L, Bende N, Kirnowardoyo S, Lim Boo Liat (1984) Malaysian fi-lariasis studies in Kendari regency, southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia II: surveil-lance of mosquitoes with reference to two Anopheles vector species. Bull Penel Keseh Health Std Indonesia 12: 8-20Google Scholar
  12. Bailly-Choumara H (1973) Étude comparative de différentes techniques de récolté de moustiques adultes (Diptera, Culicidae) faite au Maroc, en zone rurale. Bull Soc Sci Nat Phys Maroc 53: 135-187Google Scholar
  13. Bang YH (1985) Implication in the control of malaria vectors with insecticides in tropical countries of south-east Asian region. Part II—Consequences of insec-ticide use. J Commun Dis 17: 300-310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bansal SK, Singh KV (1993) Prevalence and seasonal distribution of anopheline fauna in district Bikaner (Rajasthan). Indian J Malariol 30: 119-125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Barnes WW, Southwick JW (1967) AEHA cartridge-type aspirators. Mosquito News 27: 521-522Google Scholar
  16. Barodji, Supratman S (1983) Evaluation of pit shelters as a monitoring device for outdoor populations of malaria vector Anopheles aconitus Donitz. Bull Penel Keseh Health Std Indonesia 11: 20-24Google Scholar
  17. Bates M (1944) Notes on the construction and use of stable traps for mosquito studies. J Natn Malar Soc 3: 135-145Google Scholar
  18. Batra CP, Reuben R, Das PK (1979) Studies of day-time resting places of Anophe-les stephensi Liston in Salem (Tamil Nadu). Indian J Med Res 69: 583-588PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Beier JC, Berry WJ, Craig GB (1982) Horizontal distribution of adult Aedes trise-riatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to habitat structure, oviposition, and other mosquito species. J Med Entomol 19: 239-247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bellas TE (1990) Occupational inhalant allergy to arthropods. Clin Rev Allergy 8: 15-29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bhatt RM, Sharma RC, Yadav RS, Sharma VP (1989) Resting of mosquitoes in outdoor pit shelters in Kheda district, Gujarat. Indian J. Malariol., 26: 75-81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Blin G (1908) Déstruction des moustiques par le procédé des trous-pièges. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 1: 100-103Google Scholar
  23. Bliss CI (1970) Statistics in Biology, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Bown DN, Bang YH (1980) Ecological studies on Aedes simpsoni (Diptera: Cu-licidae) in southeastern Nigeria. J Med Entomol 17: 367-374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bown DN, Rios JR, del Angel Cabañas G, Guerrero JC, Méndez JF (1984) Evaluation of chlorphoxim used against Anopheles albimanus on the south coast of Mexico: 1; Results of indoor chlorphoxim applications and assess-ment of the methodology employed. Bull Pan-Am Health Organ 18: 379-388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Boxmeyer CE, Palchick SM (1999) Distribution of resting female Aedes vexans (Meigen) in wooded and nonwooded areas of metropolitan Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 15: 128-132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bradley GH (1943) Determination of densities of populations of Anopheles quadrimaculatus on the wing. Proc New Jers Mosq Exterm Assoc 30: 22-27Google Scholar
  28. Breeland SG (1972a) Studies on the diurnal resting habits of Anopheles albimanus and A. pseudopunctipennis in El Salvador. Mosquito News 32: 99-106Google Scholar
  29. Breeland SG (1972b) Methods for measuring anopheline densities in El Salvador. Mosquito News 32: 62-72Google Scholar
  30. Breeland SG (1974) Population patterns of Anopheles albimanus and their signifi-cance to malaria abatement. Bull World Health Organ 50: 307-315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Breeland SG, Glasgow JW (1967) An improved portable resting station for Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. Mosquito News 27: 5-9Google Scholar
  32. Breeland SG, Jeffery GM, Lofgren CS, Weidhaas DE (1974) Release of chemosterilized males for the control of Anopheles albimanus in El Salvador. I. Characteristics of the test site and the natural population. Am J Trop Med Hyg 23: 274-281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Bryan JH (1979) Observations on the member species of the Anopheles gambiae complex in The Gambia, West Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 73: 463-466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Burbutis PP, Jobbins DM (1958) Studies on the use of a diurnal resting box for the collection of Culiseta melanura (Coquillett). Bull Brooklyn Entomol Soc 53: 53-58Google Scholar
  35. Burton GJ (1954) Suggested improvements for an unbreakable aspirator and kill-ing tube. Mosquito News 14: 27-30Google Scholar
  36. Bushrod FM (1979) Studies on filariasis transmission in Kwale, a Tanzanian coastal village, and the results of mosquito control measures. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 73: 277-285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Büttiker W (1958) Notes on exophily in anophelines in south-east Asia. Bull World Health Organ 19: 1118-1123Google Scholar
  38. Carpenter SJ, Middlekauff WW, Chamberlain RW (1946) The Mosquitoes of Southern United States East of Oklahoma and Texas. Am Midl Nat Monogr 3. The University Press of Notre Dame, IndianaGoogle Scholar
  39. Carver HD (1967) A portable aspirator for collecting mosquitoes. Mosquito News 27: 428-429Google Scholar
  40. Chadee DD, Williams SA, Ottesen EA (2002) Xenomonitoring of Culex quinque-fasciatus mosquitoes as a guide for detecting the presence or absence of lym-phatic filariasis: a preliminary protocol for mosquito sampling. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96 (Supplement 2): S47-S53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Chand SK, Yadav RS, Sharma VP (1993) Seasonality of indoor resting mosqui-toes in a broken-forest ecosystem of North-Western Orissa. Indian J Malariol 30: 145-154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Chanda DA, Shisler JK (1980) Mosquito control problems associated with storm water control facilities. Proc New Jers Mosq Control Assoc 67: 193-200Google Scholar
  43. Chandler JA, Highton RB, Boreham PFL (1976) Studies on some ornithophilic mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of the Kano Palin, Kenya. Bull Entomol Res 66: 133-143Google Scholar
  44. Charlwood JD, Bryan JH (1987) A mark-recapture experiment with the filariasis vector Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 81: 429-436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Charlwood JD, Dagoro H, Paru R (1985) Blood-feeding and resting behaviour in the Anopheles punctulatus Donitz complex (Diptera: Culicidae) from coastal Papua New Guinea. Bull Entomol Res 75: 463-475Google Scholar
  46. Charlwood JD, Smith T, Kihonda J, Heiz B, Billingsley PF, Takken W (1995) Density independent feeding success of malaria vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) in Tanzania. Bull Entomol Res 85: 29-35Google Scholar
  47. Chatterjee KK, Biswas D, Choudhuri DK, Mukherjee H, Hati AK (1993) Resting sites of Anopheles stephensi Liston in Calcutta. Indian J Malariol 30: 109-112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Clark GG, Seda H, Gubler DJ (1994) Use of the “CDC backpack aspirator” for surveillance of Aedes aegypti in San Juan, Puerto Rico. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 10: 119-124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Clarke JL, Pradhan GD, Joshi GP, Fontaine RE (1980) Assessment of the grain store as an unbaited outdoor shelter for mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex and Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae) at Kisumu, Kenya. J Med Entomol 17: 100-102Google Scholar
  50. Coluzzi M, Petrarca V (1973) Aspirator with paper cup for collecting mosquitoes and other insects. Mosquito News 33: 249-250Google Scholar
  51. Copeland RS (1986) The biology of Aedes thibaulti in northern Indiana. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2: 1-6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Cordellier R, Bouchité B, Roche J-C, Monteny N, Diaco B, Akoliba P (1983) Circulation sylvatique du virus dengue 2 en 1980, dans les savanes sub-soudaniennes de Côte d’Ivoire. Données entomologiques et considérations épidémiologiques. Cah ORSTOM sér. Entomol Méd Parasitol 21: 165-179Google Scholar
  53. Covell G, Mulligan HW, Afridi MK (1938) An attempt to control malaria by the destruction of adult mosquitoes with insecticidal sprays. J Malar Inst India 1: 105-113Google Scholar
  54. Cupp EW, Scherer WF, Lok JB, Brenner RJ, Dziem GM, Ordonezi JV (1986) En-tomological studies at an enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus focus in Guatemala, 1977-1980. Am J Trop Med Hyg 35: 851-859PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Das NG, Bhuyan M, Das SC (2000) Entomological and epidemiological studies on malaria in Rajmahal range, Bihar. Indian J Malariol 37: 88-96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Davies JB (1973) A simple battery operated suction trap for insects attracted to animal, light or chemical bait. Mosquito News 33: 102-104Google Scholar
  57. Davis EW, Gould DJ (1973) A portable suction apparatus for collecting mosqui-toes. Mosquito News 33: 246-247Google Scholar
  58. Day JF, Curtis GA (1989) Influence of rainfall on Culex nigripalpus (Diptera: Cu-licidae) blood-feeding behavior in Indian River county, Florida. Ann Entomol Soc Am 82: 32-37Google Scholar
  59. Day JF, Curtis GA, Edman JD (1990) Rainfall-directed oviposition behavior of Culex nigripalpus (Diptera: Culicidae) and its influence on St. Louis encepha-litis virus transmission in Indian River county, Florida. J Med Entomol 27: 43-50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. De SK, Chandra G (1994) Studies on the filariasis vector - Culex quinquefasciatus at Kanchrapara, West Bengal (India). Indian J Med Res 99: 255-258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. de Freitas EN, Shope RE, Causey OR (1966) A portable suction apparatus for cap-turing insects. Mosquito News 26: 368-372Google Scholar
  62. Dell’Uomo G (1967) Un aspiratore portatile per cattura di zanzare, azionato a bat-teria. Riv Parassitol 28: 221-223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. De Meillon B (1936) II. The control of malaria in South Africa by measures di-rected against the adult mosquitoes in habitations. Q Bull Health Organ L of N 5: 134-137Google Scholar
  64. De Meillon B, Paterson HE, Muspratt J (1957) Studies on arthropod-borne viruses of Tongaland, II. Notes on the more common mosquitoes. S Afr J Med Sci 22: 47-53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. de Zulueta J (1950) A study of the habits of the adult mosquitoes dwelling in the savanna of eastern Colombia. Am J Trop Med 30: 325-339Google Scholar
  66. de Zulueta J (1952) Observations on mosquito density in an endemic malarious area in eastern Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1: 314-329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Dietrick EJ (1961) An improved backpack motor fan for suction sampling of insect populations. J Econ Entomol 54: 394-395Google Scholar
  68. Dietrick EJ, Schlinger EI, van den Bosch R (1959) A new method for sampling arthropods using a suction collecting machine and modified Berlese funnel separator. J Econ Entomol 52: 1085-1091Google Scholar
  69. Dossou-yovo J, Doannio JMC, Riviere F, Chauvancy G (1995) Malaria in Cote d’Ivoire wet savannah region: the entomological input. Trop Med Parasitol 46, 263-269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Douglas RB (1984) The hazard of pooting insects. Antenna 8, 193-194Google Scholar
  71. Downe AER (1960) Blood-meal sources and notes on host preferences of some Aedes mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Can J Zool 38, 689-699Google Scholar
  72. Dua VK, Sharma SK, Srivastava A, Sharma VP (1997) Bioenvironmental control of industrial malaria at Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd., Hardwar, India - results of a nine-year study (1987-95). J Am Mosq Control Assoc 13: 278-285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Dyce AL, Standfast HA, Kay BH (1972) Collection and preparation of biting midges (Fam. Ceratopogonidae) and other small Diptera for virus isolation. J Aust Entomol Soc 11: 91-96Google Scholar
  74. Eddey LG (1944) Spray-killing of mosquitoes in houses—A contribution to ma-laria control on the Gold Coast. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 38: 167-197Google Scholar
  75. Edman JD, Evans FDS, Williams JA (1968) Development of a diurnal resting box to collect Culiseta melanura (Coq.). Am J Trop Med Hyg 17: 451-456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Edman J, Kittayapong P, Linthicum K, Scott T (1997) Attractant resting boxes for rapid collection and surveillance of Aedes aegypti (L.) inside houses. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 13: 24-27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. El Said S, Beier JC, Kenawy MA, Morsy ZS, Merdan AI (1986) Anopheles popu-lation dynamics in two malaria endemic villages in Faiyum governorate, Egypt. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2: 158-163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Faye O, Konate L, Gaye O, Fontenille D, Sy N, Diop A, Diagne M, Molez JF (1998) Impact de l’utilisation des moustiquaires pré-impregnées de per-méthrine sur la transmission du paludisme dans un village hyperendémique du Sénégal. Méd Trop (Mars) 58: 355-360Google Scholar
  79. Fernandez-Salas I, Roberts DR, Rodríguez MH, Rodríguez MC, Marina-Fernandez CF (1993) Host selection patterns of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis under insecticide spraying situations in southern Mexico. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 9: 375-384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Fernandez-Salas I, Rodriguez MH, Roberts DR, Rodriguez MC, Wirtz RA (1994) Bionomics of adult Anopheles pseudopunctipennis (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Tapachula foothills area of southern Mexico. J Med Entomol 31: 663-670PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Flores-Mendoza C, Lourenco-de-Oliveira R (1996) Bionomics of Anopheles aq-uasalis Curry 1932, in Guarai, State of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil - I. Seasonal distribution and parity rates. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 91: 265-270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Forattini OP, Kakitani I, Massad E, Marucci D (1993) Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and anthropic environment. 4 - Survey of resting adults and synanthropic behaviour in South-Eastern Brazil. Rev Saúde Pública 27: 398-411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Forattini OP, Kakitani I, Sallum MAM, de Rezende L (1997) Produtividade de criadouro de Aedes albopictus em ambiente urbano. Rev Saúde Pública 31: 545-555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Forattini OP, Kakitani I, dos Santos RLC, Kobayashi KM, Ueno HM, Fernandez Z (2000) Comportamento de Aedes albopictus e de Ae. scapularis adultos (Diptera: Culicidae) no Sudeste do Brasil. Rev Saúde Pública 34: 461-467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Frank JH, Curtis GA (1977) On the bionomics of bromeliad-inhabiting mosqui-toes. V. A mark-release-recapture technique for estimation of population size of Wyeomyia vanduzeei. Mosquito News 37: 444-452Google Scholar
  86. Gad AM, Riad IB, Farid HA (1995) Host-feeding patterns of Culex pipiens and Cx. antennatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from a village in Sharqiya Governorate, Egypt. J Med Entomol 32: 573-577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Garcia R, des Rochers BS, Voigt WG (1988) A bait/carbon dioxide trap for the collection of the western tree hole mosquito Aedes sierrensis. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 4: 85-88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Garvin MC, Ohajuruka OA, Bell KE, Ives SL (2004) Seroprevalence of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in birds and larval survey of Culiseta melanura Coquillett during an interepizootic period in central Ohio. J Vector Ecol 29: 73-78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Gillies MT (1954) Studies of house leaving and outside resting of Anopheles gam-biae Giles and Anopheles funestus Giles in East Africa. I. The outside resting population. Bull Entomol Res 45: 361-373Google Scholar
  90. Gillies MT (1955) The density of adult Anopheles in the neighbourhood of an East African village. Am J Trop Med Hyg 4: 1103-1113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Gillies MT (1956) The problem of exophily in Anopheles gambiae. Bull World Health Organ 15: 437-449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Girod R, Salvan M, Simard F, Andrianaivolambo L, Fontenille D, Laventure S (1999) Evaluation de la capacité vectorielle d’Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) à l’île de La Réunion: une approche du risque sanitaire lié au paludisme d’importation en zone d’éradication. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 92: 203-209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Githeko AK (1992) The behaviour and ecology of malaria vectors and malaria transmission in Kisumu district of Western Kenya. Ph.D. thesis, University of LiverpoolGoogle Scholar
  94. Gomes AC, Silva NN, Marques GRAM, Brito M (2003) Host-feeding patterns of potential human disease vectors in the Paraíba Valley Region, State of São Paulo, Brazil. J Vector Ecol 28: 74-78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Goodwin MH (1942) Studies on artificial resting places of Anopheles quadri-maculatus Say. J Natn Malar Soc 1: 93-99Google Scholar
  96. Gould DJ, Edelman R, Grossman RA, Nisalak A, Sullivan MF (1974). Study of Japanese encephalitis virus in Chiangmai Valley, Thailand. IV. Vector stud-ies. Am J Epidemiol 100: 49-56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Governatori M, Bulgarini C, Rivasi F, Pampiglione S (1993) A new portable aspi-rator for Culicidae and other winged insects. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 9: 460-462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Grimstad PR, DeFoliart GR (1974) Nectar sources of Wisconsin mosquitoes. J Med Entomol 11: 331-334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Gunasekaran K, Jambulingam P, Das PK (1995) Distribution of indoor-resting Anopheles fluviatilis in human dwellings and its implication on indoor resid-ual spray. Indian J Malariol 32: 42-46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Gusciora WR (1961) The resting box technique for the sampling of Culiseta melanura (Coquillett). Proc New Jers Mosq Exterm Assoc 48: 122-125Google Scholar
  101. Haddow AJ (1942) The mosquito fauna and climate of native huts at Kisumu, Kenya. Bull Entomol Res 33: 91-142Google Scholar
  102. Hall H, Drew WA, Eisenbraun EJ (1968) A portable battery-operated aspirator (ant collector). Ann Entomol Soc Am 61: 1348-1349Google Scholar
  103. Harden FW, Poolson BJ, Bennett LW, Gaskin RC (1970) Analysis of CO2 sup-plemented mosquito adult landing rate counts. Mosquito News 30: 369-374Google Scholar
  104. Harwood RF (1962) Trapping overwintering adults of the mosquitoes Culex tar-salis and Anopheles freeborni. Mosquito News 22: 26-31Google Scholar
  105. Harwood RF, Halfhill JE (1960) Mammalian burrows and vegetation as summer resting sites of the mosquitoes Culex tarsalis and Anopheles freeborni. Mos-quito News 20: 174-178Google Scholar
  106. Hayes RO, Bellamy RE, Reeves WC, Willis MJ (1958) Comparison of four sam-pling methods for measurement of Culex tarsalis adult populations. Mosquito News 18: 218-227Google Scholar
  107. Hayes RO, Kitaguchi GE, Mann RM (1967) The ‘CDC sweeper’, a six-volt me-chanical aspirator for collecting adult mosquitoes. Mosquito News 27: 359-363Google Scholar
  108. Hayes RO, Tempelis CH, Hess AD, Reeves WC (1973) Mosquito host preference studies in Hale County, Texas. Am J Trop Med Hyg 22: 270-277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Herrel N, Amerasinghe FP, Ensink J, Mukhtar M, Van der Hoek W, Konradsen F (2004) Adult anopheline ecology and malaria transmission in irrigated areas of South Punjab, Pakistan. Med Vet Entomol 18: 141-152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Hewitt S, Rowland M, Muhammad N, Kamal M, Kemp E (1995) Pyrethroid-sprayed tents for malaria control: an entomological evaluation in Pakistan. Med Vet Entomol 9: 344-352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Hobbs JH, Sexton JD, St. Jean Y, Jacques JR (1986) The biting and resting behav-ior of Anopheles albimanus in northern Haiti. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2: 150-153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Holck AR, Meek CL (1991) Comparison of sampling techniques for adult mosqui-toes and other Nematocera in open vegetation. J Entomol Sci 26: 231-236Google Scholar
  113. Howard JJ, White DJ, Muller SL (1989) Mark-recapture studies on the Culiseta (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of eastern equine encephalitis virus. J Med Entomol 26: 190-199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Howard JJ, Grayson MA, White DJ, Oliver J (1996) Evidence for multiple foci of eastern equine encephalitis virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) in central New York State. J Med Entomol 33: 421-432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Hudson JE (1978) Overwintering sites and ovarian development of some mosqui-toes in central Alberta, Canada, Mosquito News 38: 570-579Google Scholar
  116. Husbands RC (1958) An improved mechanical aspirator. California Vector Views 5: 72-73Google Scholar
  117. Husbands RC, Holten JR (1967) An improved mechanical method of aspirating insects. California Vector Views 14: 78-80Google Scholar
  118. Ijumba JN, Mosha FW, Lindsay SW (2002) Malaria transmission risk variations derived from different agricultural practices in an irrigated area of northern Tanzania. Med Vet Entomol 16: 28-38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Irby WS, Apperson CS (1992) Spatial and temporal distribution of resting female mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the costal plain of North Carolina. J Med Entomol 29: 150-159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Ismail IAH, Notananda V, Schepens J (1974) Studies on malaria and responses of Anopheles balabacensis balabacensis and Anopheles minimus to DDT residual spraying in Thailand. Part I—Pre-spraying observations. Acta Trop 31: 129-164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Ismail IAH, Notananda V, Schepens J (1975) Studies on malaria and responses of Anopheles balabacensis balabacensis and Anopheles minimus to DDT residual spraying in Thailand. Part II Post-spraying observations. Acta Trop 32: 206-231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Ismail IAH, Pinichpongse S, Boonrasri P (1978) Responses of Anopheles minimus to DDT residual spraying in a cleared forest hill area in central Thailand. Acta Trop 35: 69-82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Iwao S (1968) A new regression method for analyzing the aggregation pattern of animal populations. Res Popul Ecol 10: 1-20Google Scholar
  124. Jackson SC, Grothaus RH (1971) A combination aspirator and killing tube for col-lecting mosquitoes and other insects. Mosquito News 31: 112-113Google Scholar
  125. Joshi GP, Fontaine RE, Thymakis K, Pradhan GD (1973) The cause of occasional high counts of An. gambiae in morning pyrethrum spray collections in huts sprayed with fenitrothion, Kisumu, Kenya. Mosquito News 33: 29-38Google Scholar
  126. Joshi GP, Self LS, Usman S, Pant CP, Nelson MJ, Supalin (1977) Ecological stud-ies on Anopheles aconitus in the Semarang area of central Java, Indonesia. WHO/VBC/77.677; 155 pp. (mimeographed)Google Scholar
  127. Jupp PG, McIntosh BM (1987) A bionomic study of adult Aedes (Neomelani-conion) circumluteolus in northern Kwazulu, South Africa. J Am Mosq Con-trol Assoc 3: 131-136Google Scholar
  128. Kalra NL (1980) Emergence of malaria zoonosis of simian origin as natural phe-nomenon in Greater Nicobars, Andaman & Nicobar islands—A preliminary note. J Commun Dis 12: 49-54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Kanojia PC (2003) Bionomics of Culex epidesmus associated with Japanese en-cephalitis virus in India. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 19: 151-154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Kay BH (1983) Collection of resting adult mosquitoes at Kowanyama, northern Queensland and Charleville, south-western Queensland. J Aust Entomol Soc 22: 19-24Google Scholar
  131. Keating J, Mbogo C, Mwangangi J, Nzovu JG, Gu W, Regens JL, Yan G, Githure JI, Beier JC (2005) Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus mosquito distributions at 30 villages along the Kenyan coast. J Med Entomol 42: 241-246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Kenawy M, Zimmerman JH, Beier JC, El Said S, Abbassy MM (1986) Host-feeding patterns of Anopheles sergentii and An. multicolor (Diptera: Culicidae) in Siwa and el Gara oases, Egypt. J Med Entomol 23: 576-577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Kenawy M, Beier JC, Asiago CM, El Said S (1990) Factors affecting the human-feeding behavior of anopheline mosquitoes in Egyptian oases. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 6: 446-451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Khin Maung, Kyi U (1964) Rapid and efficient methods for sampling anopheline populations in insecticide treated areas. Burmese Med J 12: 130-134Google Scholar
  135. King WV, Bradley GH, McNeel TE (1939) The Mosquitoes of the South-eastern States. Miscellaneous Publications of the U.S. Department of Agri-culture No. 336Google Scholar
  136. Komar N, Pollack RJ, Spielman A (1995) A nestable fiber pot for sampling rest-ing mosquitoes. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 11: 463-467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Konradsen F, Stobberup KA, Sharma SK, Gulati OT, van der Hoek W (1998) Irri-gation water releases and Anopheles culicifacies abundance in Gujarat, India. Acta Trop 71: 195-197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Krafsur ES (1971) Malaria transmission in Gambela, Illubabor province. Ethiop Med. J 9: 75-94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Krafsur ES (1977) The bionomics and relative prevalence of Anopheles species with respect to the transmission of Plasmodium to man in western Ethiopia. J Med Entomol 14: 180-194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Kuntz KJ, Olson JK, Rade BJ (1982) Role of domestic animals as hosts for blood-seeking females of Psorophora columbiae and other mosquito species in Texas ricefields. Mosquito News 42: 202-210Google Scholar
  141. la Grange JJP, Coetzee M (1997) A mosquito survey of Thomo village, Northern Province, South Africa, with special reference to the bionomics of exophilic members of the Anopheles funestus group (Diptera: Culicidae). African En-tomol 5: 295-299.Google Scholar
  142. Laarman JJ (1959) A new species of Anopheles from a rain-forest in eastern Bel-gian Congo. Acta Leidensia 29: 200-211Google Scholar
  143. Lee VH, Atmosoedjono S, Rusmiarto S, Aep S, Semendra W (1983) Mosquitoes of Bali island, Indonesia: common species in the village environment. South-east Asian J Trop Med Public Health 14: 298-307Google Scholar
  144. Lindsay SW, Snow RW (1988) The trouble with eaves; house entry by vectors of malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 82: 645-646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Lindsay SW, Armstrong Schellenberg JRM, Zeiler HA, Daly RJ, Salum FM, Wilkins HA (1995) Exposure of Gambian children to Anopheles gambiae malaria vectors in an irrigated rice production area. Med Vet Entomol 9: 50-58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Lines JD, Lyimo EO, Curtis CF (1986) Mixing of indoor- and outdoor-resting adults of Anopheles gambiae Giles s.1. and A. funestus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in coastal Tanzania. Bull Entomol Res 76: 171-178Google Scholar
  147. Lloyd JE, Schmidtmann ET, Kumar R, Bobian RJ, Waggoner JW, Legg DE, Hill DC (2002) Suppression of bloodfeeding by Ochlerotatus dorsalis and Ochlero-tatus melanimon on cattle treated with Python® ear tags. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 18: 207-209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Loomis EC, Green DH (1959) Ecological observations on Culex tarsalis Coquillett and other mosquitoes in the delta region of the Central Valley of California, 1953-1956 (Diptera: Culicidae). Ann Entomol Soc Am 52: 524-533Google Scholar
  149. Loomis EC, Sherman EJ (1959) Comparison of artificial shelters and light traps for measurement of Culex tarsalis and Anopheles freeborni populations. Mos-quito News 19: 232-237Google Scholar
  150. Lothrop HD, Reisen WK (2001) Landscape affects the host-seeking patterns of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Coachella Valley of California. J Med Entomol 38: 325-332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Love GJ, Goodwin MH (1961) Notes on the bionomics and seasonal occurrence of mosquitoes in southwestern Georgia. Mosquito News 21: 195-215Google Scholar
  152. Lowe RE, Bailey DL (1979) Comparison of morning and evening captures of adult female Anopheles albimanus from stables in El Salvador. Mosquito News 39: 532-535Google Scholar
  153. Lutwama JJ, Kayondo J, Savage HM, Burkot TR, Miller BR (1999) Epidemic o’nyong-nyong fever in southcentral Uganda, 1996-1997: entomologic stud-ies in Bbaale village, Rakai district. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61: 158-162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Magnarelli LA (1977a) Seasonal occurrence and parity of Aedes canadensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in New York state, USA. J Med Entomol 13: 741-745PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Magnarelli LA (1977b) Host feeding patterns of Connecticut mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Am J Trop Med Hyg 26: 547-552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Makiya K, Taguchi I (1982) Ecological studies on overwintering populations of Culex pipiens patterns. 3. Movement of the mosquitoes in a cave during overwintering. Jap J Sanit Zool 33: 335-343Google Scholar
  157. Malakar P, Das S, Saha GK, Dasgupta B, Hati AK (1995) Indoor resting anophelines of North Bengal. Indian J Malariol 32: 24-31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Mani TR, Tewari SC, Reuben R, Devaputra M (1984) Resting behaviour of anophelines & sporozoite rates in vectors of malaria along the river Thenpen-nai (Tamil Nadu). Indian J Med Res 80: 11-17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Mani TR, Rao CVRM, Rajendran R, Devaputra M, Prassana Y, Hanumaiah Gajanana A, Reuben R (1991) Surveillance for Japanese encephalitis in vil-lages near Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 85: 287-291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. McCardle PW, Webb RE, Norden BB, Aldrich JR (2004) Evaluation of five trap-ping systems for the surveillance of gravid mosquitoes in Prince Georges County, Maryland. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 20: 254-260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. McClelland GAH (1957) Methods of Collection of Blood-fed Females in the Field. E. Afr. Virus Res. Inst. Rep., 1956-1957. Government Printer, Nairobi, pp. 47-55Google Scholar
  162. McClelland GAH, Weitz B (1963) Serological identification of the natural hosts of Aedes aegypti (L.) and some other mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) caught resting in vegetation in Kenya and Uganda. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 57: 214-224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. McCrae AWR, Boreham PFL, Ssenkubuge Y (1976) The behavioural ecology of host selection in Anopheles implexus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae). Bull Entomol Res 66: 587-631Google Scholar
  164. McCreadie JW, Colbo MH, Bennett GF (1984) A trap design for the collections of hematophagous Diptera from cattle. Mosquito News 44: 212-216Google Scholar
  165. McGavin GC, Furlong J (1981) An electronic counter for use in quantitative biology. J Appl Ecol 18: 481-485Google Scholar
  166. McHugh CP (1989) Ecology of a semi-isolated population of adult Anopheles freeborni: abundance, trophic status, parity, survivorship, gonotrophic cycle length, and host selection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 41: 169-176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. McNelly J, Crans WJ (1982) Limitations in the use of resting boxes to assess populations of the mosquito, Culiseta melanura. Proc New Jers Mosq Control Assoc 69: 32Google Scholar
  168. Meek CL, Meisch MV, Walker TW (1985) Portable battery-powered aspirators for collecting adult mosquitoes. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 1: 102-105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Meyer RP (1985) The “walk-in” type red box for sampling adult mosquitoes. Proc New Jers Mosq Control Assoc 72: 104-105Google Scholar
  170. Meyer RP, Reisen WK, Hill BR, Martinez VM (1983) The “AFS sweeper”, a bat-tery powered back pack mechanical aspirator for collecting adult mosquitoes. Mosquito News 43: 346-350Google Scholar
  171. Mitchell CJ, Chen PS (1973) Ecological studies on the mosquito vectors of Japa-nese encephalitis. Bull World Health Organ 49: 287-292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Mnzava AEP, Mutinga MJ, Staak C (1994) Host blood meals and chromosomal inversion polymorphism in Anopheles arabiensis in the Baringo District of Kenya. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 10: 507-510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Mnzava AEP, Rwegoshora RT, Wilkes TJ, Tanner M, Curtis CF (1995) Anopheles arabiensis and An. gambiae chromosomal inversion polymorphism, feeding and resting behaviour in relation to insecticide house-spraying in Tanzania. Med Vet Entomol 9: 316-324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Molineaux L, Gramiccia G (1980) The Garki Project. Research on the Epidemiol-ogy and Control of Malaria in the Sudan Savanna of West Africa. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  175. Molineaux L, Shidrawi GR, Clarke JL, Boulzaguet R, Ashkar T, Dietz F (1976) The impact of propoxur on Anopheles gambiae s.1. and some other anopheline populations, and its relationship with some pre-spraying variables. Bull World Health Organ 54: 379-389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Moreby S (1991) A simple time-saving improvement to the motorized insect suc-tion sampler. The Entomologist 110: 2-4Google Scholar
  177. Morris CD (1981) A structural and operational analysis of diurnal resting shelters for mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 18: 419-424Google Scholar
  178. Morris CD, Zimmerman RH, Edman JD (1980) Epizootiology of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in upstate New York, USA. II. Population dynamics and vector potential of Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to distance from breeding site. J Med Entomol 17: 453-465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Mortenson EW (1953). Observations on the overwintering habits of Culex tarsalis Coquillett in nature. Proc California Mosq Control Assoc 21: 59-60Google Scholar
  180. Mouchet J, Rageau J, Chippaux A (1969) Hibernation de Culex molestus (Ficalbi) (Diptera: Culicidae) en Camargue. Cah ORSTOM sér. Entomol Méd Parasitol 7: 35-37Google Scholar
  181. Moussa MA, Gould DJ, Nolan MP, Hayes DE (1966) Observations on Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) in relation to encephalitis in southern Maryland. Mosquito News 26: 385-393Google Scholar
  182. Mpofu SM (1985) Seasonal vector density and disease incidence patterns of malaria in an area of Zimbabwe. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 79: 169-175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Muirhead-Thomson RC (1948) The effects of house spraying with pyrethrum and with DDT on Anopheles gambiae and A. melas in West Africa. Bull Entomol Res 38: 449-464Google Scholar
  184. Muirhead-Thomson RC (1951) Studies on salt-water and fresh-water Anopheles gambiae on the East African coast. Bull Entomol Res 41: 487-502Google Scholar
  185. Muirhead-Thomson RC (1956) The part played by woodland mosquitoes of the genus Aedes in the transmission of myxomatosis in England. J Hyg Camb 54: 461-471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Muirhead-Thomson RC (1958) A pit shelter for sampling outdoor mosquito popu-lations. Bull World Health Organ 19: 1116-1118Google Scholar
  187. Muirhead-Thomson RC (1960) The significance of irritability, behaviouristic avoidance and allied phenomena in malaria eradication. Bull World Health Organ 22: 721-734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Muirhead-Thomson RC, Mercier EC (1952) Factors in malaria transmission by Anopheles albimanus in Jamaica. Part 1. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 46: 103-116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Mulligan FS, Schaefer CH (1981) The breeding of Culex quinquefasciatus within the Fresno urban storm drain system. Proc California Mosq Vector Control Assoc 49: 101-103Google Scholar
  190. Murty US, Sai KSK, Kumar DVRS, Sriram K, Rao KM, Krishna D, Murty BSN (2002a) Relative abundance of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) with reference to infection and infectivity rate from the rural and urban areas of east and west Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 33: 702-710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Murty US, Satyakumar DVR, Sriram K, Rao KM, Singh TG, Arunachalam N, Samuel PP (2002b). Seasonal prevalence of Culex vishnui sub-group, the ma-jor vectors of Japanese encephalitis virus in an endemic district of Andhra Pradesh, India. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 18: 290-293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Mutero CM, Mosha FW, Subra R (1984) Biting activity and resting behaviour of Anopheles merus Donitz (Diptera: Culicidae) on the Kenya coast. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 78: 43-47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Mutinga MJ, Odhiambo TR, Kamau CC, Odulaja A, Amimo FA, Wachira DW (1995) Choice of resting sites by Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme, Kirinyaga District, Kenya. East Afr Med J 72: 170-175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Nagasawa S (1976) An analysis of seasonal pattern in a population of Culex pipiens fatigans Wiedemann (Diptera: Culicidae). Kontyû Tokyo 44: 102-107Google Scholar
  195. Nasci RS (1981) A lightweight battery-powered aspirator for collecting resting mosquitoes in the field. Mosquito News 41: 808-811Google Scholar
  196. Nasci RS (1982) Differences in host choice between the sibling species of treehole mosquitoes Aedes triseriatus and Aedes hendersoni. Am J Trop Med Hyg 31: 411-415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Nasci RS, Edman JD (1981a) Blood feeding patterns of Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) and associated sylvan mosquitoes in southeastern Massachusetts eastern equine encephalitis enzootic foci. J Med Entomol 18: 493-500Google Scholar
  198. Nasci RS, Edman JD (1981b). Vertical and temporal flight activity of the mosquito Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) in southe-eastern Massachusetts. J Med Entomol 18: 501-504Google Scholar
  199. Nasci RS, Edman JD (1984) Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) population structure and nectar feeding in a freshwater swamp and surrounding areas in southeastern Massachusetts, USA. J Med Entomol 21: 567-572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Nasci RS Berry RL, Restifo RA, Parsons MA, Smith GC, Martin DA (1993) Eastern equine encephalitis virus in Ohio during 1991. J Med Entomol 30: 217-222Google Scholar
  201. Natal D, Marucci D (1984) Apareho de sucçäo tipo aspirador par captura de mos-quitos. Rev Saúde Pública 18: 418-420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Nathan MB (1981) Bancroftian filariasis in coastal north Trinidad, West Indies: Intensity of transmission by Culex quinquefasciatus. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 75: 721-730PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Natuhara Y, Takagi M, Maruyama K, Sugiyama A (1991) Monitoring Culex tri-taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance in cow sheds by in situ count-ing. J Med Entomol 28: 551-552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Nayar JK (1982) Wyeomyia mitchellii: Observations on dispersal, survival, nutri-tion, insemination and ovarian development in a Florida population. Mosquito News 42: 416-427Google Scholar
  205. Nedelman J (1983) A negative binomial model for sampling mosquitoes in a ma-laria survey. Biometrics 39: 1009-1020PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Neeru Singh, Mishra AK (2000) Anopheline ecology and malaria transmission at a new irrigation project area (Bargi Dam) in Jabalpur (Central India). J Am Mosq Control Assoc 16: 279-287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Neeru Singh, Singh OP, Sharma VP (1996) Dynamics of malaria transmission in forested and deforested regions of Mandla District, central India (Madhya Pradesh). J Am Mosq Control Assoc 12: 225-234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Nelson DB, Chamberlain RW (1955) A light trap and mechanical aspirator operat-ing on dry cell batteries. Mosquito News 15: 28-32Google Scholar
  209. Nelson RL (1980) The pipe trap, an efficient method for sampling resting adult Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 17: 348-351Google Scholar
  210. Nelson RL, Spadoni RD (1972) Nightly pattern of biting activity and parous rates of some California mosquito species. Proc California Mosq Control Assoc 40: 72-76Google Scholar
  211. Nelson RL, Milby MM, Reeves WC, Fine PE (1978) Estimates of survival, popu-lation size, and emergence of Culex tarsalis at an isolated site. Ann Entomol Soc Am 71: 801-808Google Scholar
  212. Niebylski ML, Meek CL (1992) Blood-feeding of Culex mosquitoes in an urban environment. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 8: 173-177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Nigatu W, Petros B, Lulu M, Adugna N, Wirtz R (1994) Species composition, feeding and resting behaviour of the common anthropophilic anopheline mos-quitoes in relation to malaria transmission in Gambella, south west Ethiopia. Insect Science and its Application 15: 371-377Google Scholar
  214. Nutan Nanda, Yadav RS, Subbarao SK, Hema Joshi, Sharma VP (2000) Studies on Anopheles fluviatilis and Anopheles culicifacies sibling species in relation to malaria in forested hilly and deforested riverine ecosystems in northern Orissa, India. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 16: 199-205Google Scholar
  215. Nuttall GHF, Shipley AE (1902) Studies in relation to malaria. II. The structure and biology of Anopheles. J Hyg Camb 1: 58-84Google Scholar
  216. Oliver J, Howard JJ, Morris CD (1996) Fecundity of naturally bloodfed Culiseta melanura. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 12: 664-668PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Pajot F-X (1977) Préférence trophiques, cycle d’activité et lieux de repos d’Aedes (Stegomyia) simpsoni (Theobald, 1905) (Diptera: Culicidae). Cah ORSTOM sér Entomol Méd Parasitol 15: 73-91Google Scholar
  218. Pålsson K, Jaenson TGT, Dias F, Laugen AT, Björkman A (2004) Endophilic Anopheles mosquitoes in Guinea Bissau, West Africa, in relation to human housing conditions. J Med Entomol 41: 746-752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Parajuli MB, Shrestha SL, Vaidya RG, White GB (1981) Nationwide disappear-ance of Anopheles minimus Theobald, 1901, previously the principal malaria vector in Nepal. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 75: 603Google Scholar
  220. Perdew PE, Meek CL (1990) An improved model of a battery-powered aspirator. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 6: 716-719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Pfuntner AR (1978) The development and control of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Cx. peus Speiser in urban catch basins. Proc California Mosq Control Assoc 46: 126-129Google Scholar
  222. Pletsch DJ (1970) A collapsible model of the ‘red box’ for measuring mosquito population density. Mosquito News 30: 646-648Google Scholar
  223. Ponlawat A, Harrington LC (2005) Blood feeding patterns of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Thailand. J Med Entomol 42: 844-849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Rajagopalan PK, Menon PKB, Brooks GD (1977) A study on some aspects of Culex pipiens fatigans population in an urban area, Faridabad, northern India, Indian J Med Res 65 (Suppl.): 65-76Google Scholar
  225. Rajavel AR (1995). Field observations on the swarming behavior of Armigeres subalbatus (Coq) (Diptera: Culicidae). Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 26: 168-171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Rajavel AR, Natarajan R, Vaidyanathan K, Munirathinam A (2000) Seasonal in-cidence of Aedes (Rhinoskusea) portonovoensis in a mangrove forest of South India. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 16: 340-341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Rajendran R, Reuben R, Purushothaman S, Veerapatran R (1995) Prospects and problems of intermittent irrigation for control of vector breeding in rice fields in southern India. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 89: 541-549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Rajendran R, Thenmozhi V, Tewari SC, Balasubramanian A, Ayanar K, Manavalan R, Gajanana A, Kabilan L, Thakare JP, Satyanarayana K (2003) Longitudinal studies in South Indian villages on Japanese encephalitis virus infection in mosquitoes and seroconversion in goats. Trop Med Int Health 8: 174-181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Rao TR (1984). The Anophelines of India (Revised edition), Malaria Research Centre, Indian Council of Medical Research, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  230. Ravoahangimalala RO, Rakotoarivony HL, le Goff G, Fontenille D (2003) Écoéthologie des vecteurs et transmission du paludisme dans la région rizi-cole de basse altitude de Mandritsara, Madagascar. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 96: 323-328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Ree HI, Wada Y, Jolivet PHA, Hong HK, Self LS, Lee KW (1976) Studies on over-wintering Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles in the Republic of Korea. Cah ORSTOM sér Entomol Méd Parasitol 14: 105-109Google Scholar
  232. Rehn JWH, Maldonado Capriles J, Henderson JM (1950) Field studies on the bio-nomics of Anopheles albimanus. Parts II and III: diurnal resting places— Progress report. J Natn Malar Soc 9: 268-279Google Scholar
  233. Reinert JF, Kaiser PE, Seawright JA (1997) Analysis of the Anopheles (Anophe-les) quadrimaculatus complex of sibling species (Diptera: Culicidae) using morphological, cytological, molecular, genetic, biochemical, and ecological techniques in an integrated approach. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 13 (Supple-ment): 1-102Google Scholar
  234. Reisen WK, Lothrop HD (1995) Population ecology and dispersal of Culex tar-salis (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Coachella Valley of California. J Med Ento-mol 32: 490-502Google Scholar
  235. Reisen WK, Milby MM (1986) Population dynamics of some Pakistan mosqui-toes: Changes in adult relative abundance over time and space. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 80: 53-68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Reisen WK, Aslam Y, Siddiqui TF, Khan AQ (1978) A mark-release-recapture experiment with Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 72: 167-177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Reisen WK, Mahmood F, Parveen T (1979) Anopheles subpictus Grassi: observa-tions on survivorship and population size using mark-release-recapture and dissection methods. Res Popul Ecol 21: 12-29Google Scholar
  238. Reisen WK, Hayes CG, Azra K, Niaz S, Mahmood F, Parveen T, Boreham PFL (1982) West Nile virus in Pakistan. II. Entomological studies at Changa Manga national forest, Punjab province. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 76: 437-448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Reisen WK, Milby MM, Meyer RP, Reeves WC (1983) Population ecology of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in a foothill environment in Kern county, California: Temporal changes in male relative abundance and swarming be-havior. Ann Entomol Soc Am 76: 809-815Google Scholar
  240. Reisen WK, Milby MM, Reeves WC, Eberle MW, Meyer RP, Schaefer CH, Parman RB, Clement HL (1985) Aerial adulticiding for the suppression of Culex tarsalis in Kern county, California, using low volume propoxur. 2. Im-pact on natural populations in foothill and valley habitats. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 1: 154-163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Reisen WK, Meyer RP, Martinez VM, Gonzalez O, Spoehel JJ, Hazelrigg JE (1988) Mosquito abundance in suburban communities in Orange and Los An-geles counties, California, 1987. Proc California Mosq Vector Control Assoc 56: 75-85Google Scholar
  242. Reisen WK, Meyer RP, Milby MM (1989) Studies on the seasonality of Culiseta inornata in Kern county, California. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 5: 183-195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Reisen WK, Pfuntner AR, Milby MM, Tempelis CH, Presser SB (1990) Mosquito bionomics and the lack of arbovirus activity in the Chino area of San Bernardino county, California. J Med Entomol 27: 811-818PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Reisen WK, Pradhan P, Shrestha JP, Shrestha SL, Vaidya RG, Shrestha JD (1993) Anopheline mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) ecology in relation to malaria transmission in the inner and outer Terai of Nepal, 1987-1989. J Med Entomol 30: 664-682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Reisen WK, Smith PT, Lothrop HD (1995) Short-term reproductive diapause by Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Coachella Valley of California. J Med Entomol 32: 654-662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Reiter P (1983) A portable, battery-powered trap for collecting gravid Culex mos-quitoes. Mosquito News 43: 496-498Google Scholar
  247. Renshaw M (1991) Population dynamics and ecology of Aedes cantans (Diptera: Culicidae) in England. Ph.D. thesis, University of LiverpoolGoogle Scholar
  248. Ribbands CR (1946a) Moonlight and house-haunting habits of female anopheli-nes in West Africa. Bull Entomol Res 36: 395-417Google Scholar
  249. Ribbands CR (1946b) Repellency of pyrethrum and Lethane sprays to mosquitos. Bull Entomol Res 37: 163-172Google Scholar
  250. Ribeiro JMC, Seulu F, Abose T, Kidane G, Teklehaimanot A (1996) Temporal and spatial distribution of anopheline mosquitos in an Ethiopian village: implica-tions for malaria control strategies. Bull World Health Organ 74: 299-305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Robert LL, Olson JK (1986) Temporal abundance and percent insemination of newly emerged adult female Psorophora columbiae near the larval habitat. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2: 485-489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Robertson LC, Prior S, Apperson CS, Irby WS (1993) Bionomics of Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Culex erraticus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Falls Lake basin, North Carolina: seasonal changes in abundance and gonotrophic status, and host-feeding patterns. J Med Entomol 30: 689-698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Rosen L, Lien J-C, Lu L-C (1989) A longitudinal study of the prevalence of Japa-nese encephalitis virus in adult and larval Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes in northern Taiwan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 40: 557-560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Rubio-Palis Y, Curtis CF (1992) Evaluation of different methods of catching anopheline mosquitoes in western Venezuela. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 8: 261-267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Rudnick A (1986) Dengue virus ecology Malaysia In: Rudnick A, Lim TW (eds) Dengue Fever Studies in Malaysia. Bull Inst Med Res Malaysia 23, pp. 51-53Google Scholar
  256. Russell PF, Baisas FE (1935) The technic of handling mosquitoes. Philipp J Sci 56: 257-294Google Scholar
  257. Russell PF, Knipe FW (1939) Malaria control by spray-killing adult mosquitoes. First season’s results. J Malar Inst India 2: 229-237Google Scholar
  258. Russell PF, Knipe FW (1940) Malaria control by spray-killing adult mosquitoes. Second season’s results. J Malar Inst India 3: 531-541Google Scholar
  259. Russell PF, Knipe FW (1941) Malaria control by spray-killing adult mosquitoes. Third season’s results. J Malar Inst India 4: 181-197Google Scholar
  260. Russell PF, Santiago D (1934) An earth-lined trap for anopheline mosquitoes. Proc Entomol Soc Wash 36: 1-21Google Scholar
  261. Russell PF, West LS, Manwell RD, Macdonald G (1963) Practical Malariology. Oxford University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  262. Ryan R (1989) A practical method for the use of carbon dioxide as an entomological killing agent in the field. Antenna 13: 16-17Google Scholar
  263. Ryckman RE, Arakawa KY (1951) Anopheles freeborni hibernating in wood rats’ nests (Diptera: Culicidae). Pan-Pacific Entomol 27: 172Google Scholar
  264. Ryckman RE, Arakawa KY (1952) Additional collections of mosquitoes from wood rats’ nests. Pan-Pacific Entomol 28: 105-106Google Scholar
  265. Sadanandane C, Gunasekaran K, Jambulingam P, Das PK (1993) Studies on dispersal of malaria vectors in a hilly tract of Koraput District, Orissa State, India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 24: 508-512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Sadanandane C, Jambulingam P, Subramanian S (2004) Role of modified CDC miniature light-traps as an alternative method for sampling adult anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae) in the National Mosquito Surveillance Programme in India. Bull Entomol Res 94: 55-63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Saliternik Z (1963) Catching of adult mosquitoes by the aid of a flashlight. Mos-quito News 23: 351Google Scholar
  268. Saliternik Z (1965) A simple, practical method of collecting samples of Anopheles sergentii mosquitoes in a cave with the aid of a standard mosquito cage. Mos-quito News 28: 218Google Scholar
  269. Sampath TRR, Yadav RS, Sharma VP, Adak T (1998) Evaluation of lambdacy-halothrin-impregnated bednets in a malaria endemic area of India. Part 2. Impact on malaria vectors. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 14: 437-443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Savage HM, Niebylski ML, Smith CG, Mitchell CJ, Craig GB (1993) Host-feeding patterns of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) at a temperate North American site. J Med Entomol 30: 27-34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Schoof HF (1944) Adult observation stations to determine effectiveness of the control of Anopheles quadrimaculatus. J Econ Entomol 37: 770-779Google Scholar
  272. Schreiber ET, Walton WE, Mulla MS (1993) Mosquito utilization of resting sites at an urban residence in southern California. Bull Soc Vector Ecol 18: 152-159Google Scholar
  273. Senior White RA (1951) Studies on the bionomics of Anopheles aquasalis Curry, 1932 (contd.) Part II. Indian J Malariol 5: 465-512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Senior White RA (1952) Studies on the bionomics of Anopheles aquasalis Curry, 1932 (concld.). Indian J Malariol 6: 29-72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Senior White RA, Rao VV (1946) On the relative efficiency of hand and spray catching of mosquitoes. J Malar Inst India 6: 411-416Google Scholar
  276. Senior White RA, Ghosh AR, Rao JVV (1945) On the adult bionomics of some Indian anophelines: with special reference to malaria control by pyrethrum spraying. J Malar Inst India 6: 129-245Google Scholar
  277. Service MW (1963) The ecology of the mosquitos of the northern guinea savan-nah of Nigeria. Bull Entomol Res 54: 601-632Google Scholar
  278. Service MW (1964) An analysis of the numbers of Anopheles gambiae Giles and A. funestus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in huts in Northern Nigeria. Bull Entomol Res 55: 29-34Google Scholar
  279. Service MW (1969) Observations on the ecology of some British mosquitoes. Bull Entomol Res 59: 161-194Google Scholar
  280. Service MW (1971a) The daytime distribution of mosquitoes resting in vegetation. J Med Entomol 8: 271-278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Service MW (1971b) Feeding behaviour and host preferences of British mosquitoes. Bull Entomol Res 60: 653-61Google Scholar
  282. Service MW (1973) Flight activities of mosquitoes with emphasis on host seeking behaviour. In: Hudson A (ed) Biting Fly Control and Environmental Quality Proc Symp Univ Alberta, Canada, May, 1972, pp. 125-32Google Scholar
  283. Service MW (1985) Anopheles gambiae: Africa’s principal malaria vector, 1902-1984. Bull Entomol Soc Am Fall issue, 8-12Google Scholar
  284. Service MW (1986) The biologies of Aedes caspius (Pallas) and Culex quinque-fasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) in Dubai. Insect Science and its Application 7: 11-18Google Scholar
  285. Service MW (1989) The importance of ecological studies on malaria vectors. Bull Soc Vector Ecol 14: 26-38Google Scholar
  286. Service MW (1993) Mosquito Ecology. Field Sampling Methods. 2nd ed. Chapman & Hall , LondonGoogle Scholar
  287. Service MW (1994) Male swarming of the mosquito Culex (Culex) torrentium in England. Med Vet Entomol 8: 95-98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Sexton JD, Ruebush TK, Brandling-Bennett AD, Breman JG, Roberts JM, Odera JS, Were JBO (1990) Permethrin-impregnated curtains and bed-nets prevent ma-laria in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 43: 11-18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Shalaby AM (1971) Sampling of outdoor resting populations of Anopheles culicifa-cies and Anopheles fluviatilis in Gujarat State, India. Mosquito News 31: 68-73Google Scholar
  290. Shalaby AM (1972) A study of the outdoor population of anopheline mosquitoes in Gujarat State of India. Bull Soc Entomol Egypte 56: 369-388Google Scholar
  291. Shapiro JM, Saliternik Z, Belferman S (1944) Malaria survey of the Dead Sea area during 1942, including the description of a mosquito flight test and its results. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 38: 95-116Google Scholar
  292. Sheldahl JA (1974) A simple conversion of a back mist-blower into an efficient power aspirator. Mosquito News 34: 166-169Google Scholar
  293. Shemanchuk JA (1965) On the hibernation of Culex tarsalis Coquillett, Culiseta inornata Williston and Anopheles earlei Vargas (Diptera: Culicidae). Mos-quito News 25: 456-462Google Scholar
  294. Shililu J, Ghebremeskel T, Mengistu S, Fekadu H, Zerom M, Mbogo C, Githure J, Gu WD, Novak R, Beier JC (2003) Distribution of anopheline mosquitoes in Eritrea. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69: 295-302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Shililu J, Ghebremeskel T, Seulu F, Mengistu S, Fekadu H, Zerom M, Asmelash GE, Sintasath D, Mbogo C, Githure J, Brantly E, Beier JC, Novak RJ (2004) Sea-sonal abundance, vector behavior, and malaria parasite transmission in Eritrea. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 20: 155-164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Shimogama M, Takatsuki Y (1967) Seasonal changes in the distribution and abundance of mosquitoes, especially Culex pipiens pallens in a cave in Nagasaki City. Endem Dis Bull Nagasaki Univ 8: 159-165Google Scholar
  297. Sholdt LL, Neri P (1974) Mouth aspirator with holding cage for collecting mos-quitoes and other insects. Mosquito News 34: 236Google Scholar
  298. Simmons KR, Edman JD, Bennett SR (1989) Collection of blood-engorged black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and identification of their source of blood. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 5: 541-546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Smith A (1955) The distribution of resting A. gambiae Giles and A. funestus Giles in circular and rectangular mud walled huts in Ukara Island, Tanganyika. East Afr Med J 32: 325-329Google Scholar
  300. Smith A (1961) Resting habits of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles pharoensis in salt bush and in crevices in the ground. Nature 190: 1220-1221Google Scholar
  301. Smith A (1962a) The preferential indoor resting habits of Anopheles gambiae in the Umbugwe area of Tanganyika. East Afr Med J 39: 631-635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Smith A (1962b) Studies on domestic habits of A. gambiae that affect its vulner-ability to insecticides. East Afr Med J 39: 15-24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Smith A (1964) A review of the origin and development of experimental hut tech-niques used in the study of insecticides in East Africa. East Afr Med J 41: 361-374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Smith A, Obudho WO, Esozed S (1966) Resting patterns of Anopheles gambiae in experimental huts treated with malathion. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 60: 401-408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Smith CM, Shisler JK (1981) An assessment of storm water drainage facilities as sources of mosquito breeding. Mosquito News 41: 226-230Google Scholar
  306. Smith GE (1942) The keg shelter as a diurnal resting place of Anopheles quadri-maculatus. Am J Trop Med 22: 257-269Google Scholar
  307. Snow WE (1949) Studies on portable resting stations for Anopheles quadrimacu-latus in the Tennessee valley. J Natn Malar Soc 8: 336-343Google Scholar
  308. Snow WE, Smith GE (1956) Observations on Anopheles walkeri Theobald in the Tennessee valley. Mosquito News 16: 294-298Google Scholar
  309. Southwood TRE (1978) Ecological Methods with Particular Reference to the Study of Insect Populations. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  310. Southwood TRE, Henderson PA (2000) Ecological Methods. 3rd ed. Blackwell Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  311. Spencer M (1965) Malaria in the d’Entrecasteaux islands, Papua, with particular reference to Anopheles farauti Laveran. Proc Linn Soc N.S.W 90: 115-127Google Scholar
  312. Spencer TET (1962) Notes on a suction device for catching mosquitoes. Papua New Guinea Med J 6: 32Google Scholar
  313. Spielman A (1964) Two mechanical aspirators for the manipulation of mosqui-toes. J Parasitol 50: 585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. Stern VM, Dietrick EJ, Mueller A (1965) Improvements on self-propelled equip-ment for collecting, separating, and tagging mass numbers of insects in the field. J Econ Entomol 58: 949-953Google Scholar
  315. Subbarao SK, Vasantha K, Raghavendra K, Sharma VP, Sharma GK (1988) Anopheles culicifacies: siblings species composition and its relationship to malaria incidence. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 4: 29-33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Sudia WD, Chamberlain RW (1967) Collection and Processing of Medically Im-portant Anthropods for Virus Isolation, U.S. Dept Hlth Educ National Disease Center, Atlanta, GeorgiaGoogle Scholar
  317. Sulaiman S, Service MW (1983) Studies on hibernating populations of the mos-quito Culex pipiens in southern and northern England. J Nat Hist 17: 849-857Google Scholar
  318. Summers CG, Garrett RE, Zalom FG (1984) New suction device for sampling arthropod populations. J Econ Entomol 77: 817-823Google Scholar
  319. Swellengrebel N, de Buck A (1938) Malaria in the Netherlands. Scheltema & Holkema, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  320. Symes CB, Hadaway AB (1947) Initial experiments in the use of DDT against mosquitoes in British Guiana. Bull Entomol Res 37: 399-430Google Scholar
  321. Szumlas DE, Apperson CS, Powell EE (1996) Seasonal occurrence and abundance of Aedes triseriatus and other mosquitoes in a La Crosse virus-endemic area in western North Carolina. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 12: 184-193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. Takahashi M, Yabe S, Shimizu Y (1971) Observations on the feeding habits of some mosquitoes in Gunma prefecture, Japan. Jap J Med Sci Biol 24: 163-169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. Tang Y (1996) Condom barrier in a mouth-operated aspirator prevents inhalation of debris when handling small insects. Med Vet Entomol 10: 288-290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. Taylor B (1975) Observations on malaria vectors of the Anopheles punctulatus complex in the British Solomon Islands Protectorate. J Med Entomol 11: 677-687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. Taylor LR (1961) Aggregation, variance and the mean. Nature 189: 732-735Google Scholar
  326. Teesdale C (1959) Observations on the mosquito fauna of Mombasa. Bull Entomol Res 50: 191-208Google Scholar
  327. Tempelis CH, Galindo P (1970) Feeding habits of five species of Deinocerites mosquitoes collected in Panama. J Med Entomol 7: 175-179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. Tempelis CH, Hayes RO, Hess AD, Reeves WC (1970) Blood-feeding habits of four species of mosquitoes found in Hawaii. Am J Trop Med Hyg 19: 335-341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. Thornhill EW (1978) A motorised insect sampler. PANS 24: 205-207Google Scholar
  330. Tianyun Su, Webb JP, Meyer RP, Mulla MS (2003) Spatial and temporal distribu-tion of mosquitoes in underground storm drain systems in Orange County, California. J Vector Ecol 28: 79-89Google Scholar
  331. Tidwell MA, Williams DC, Tidwell TC, Peña CJ, Gwinn TA, Focks DA, Zaglul A, Mercedes M (1990) Baseline data on Aedes aegypti populations in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 6: 514-522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. Tiwari SN, Anil Prakash, Ghosh SK (1997) Seasonality of indoor resting anophelines in stone quarry area of District Allahabad, U.P. Indian J Malariol 34: 132-139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. Tonkyn DW (1980) The formula for the volume sampled by a sweep net. Ann En-tomol Soc Am 73: 452-453Google Scholar
  334. Trapido H, Aitken THG (1953) Study of a residual population of Anopheles l. labranchiae Falleroni in the Geremeas valley, Sardinia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2: 658-676Google Scholar
  335. Trpis M (1968) A suction apparatus for collecting mosquitoes and other insects. Mosquito News 28: 647-648Google Scholar
  336. Vale GA (1971) Artificial refuges for tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). Bull Entomol Res 61: 331-350Google Scholar
  337. van Peenen PFD, Atmosoedjono S, Lien JC, Saroso S (1972) Seasonal abundance of Aedes aegypti in Djakarta, Indonesia. Mosquito News 32: 176-179Google Scholar
  338. van Someren ECC, Heisch RB, Furlong M (1958) Observations on the behaviour of some mosquitos of the Kenya coast. Bull Entomol Res 49: 643-660Google Scholar
  339. Viswanathan DK, Rao TR, Bhatia SC (1952) The validity of estimation of Anopheles densities on the basis of hand collection on a timed basis from fixed catching stations. Indian J Malariol 6: 199-213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. Viswanathan DK, Rao TR, Halgeri AV, Karandikar VS (1950) Observations on Anopheles densities in indoor shelters during the forenoon, afternoon and night. Indian J Malariol 4: 533-547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. Warburg A (1989) An improved air filter for sandfly aspirators. Med Vet Entomol 3: 325-326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. Weathersbee AA, Meisch MV (1988) An economical lightweight portable resting unit for sampling adult Anopheles quadrimaculatus populations. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 4: 89-90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. Weathersbee AA, Meisch MV (1990) Dispersal of Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Arkansas ricefields. Environ Entomol 19: 961-965Google Scholar
  344. Weathersbee AA, Meisch MV, Sandoski CA, Finch MF, Dame DA, Olson JK, Inman A (1986) Combination ground and aerial adulticide applications against mosquitoes in an Arkansas riceland community. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2: 456-460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. Wekesa JW, Yuval B, Washino RK (1996) Spatial distribution of adult mosqui-toes (Diptera: Culicidae) in habitats associated with the rice agroecosystem of northern California. J Med Entomol 33: 344-350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. Wekesa JW, Yuval B, Washino RK, de Vasquez AM (1997) Blood feeding pat-terns of Anopheles freeborni and Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae): effects of habitat and host abundance. Bull Entomol Res 87: 633-641Google Scholar
  347. Wharton RH (1950) Daytime resting places of Anopheles maculatus and other anophelines in Malaya, with results of precipitin tests. Med J Malaya 4: 260-271Google Scholar
  348. Wiens JE, Burgess L (1972) An aspirator for collecting insects from dusty habitats. Can Entomol 104: 1557-1558Google Scholar
  349. Williams MC, Weitz B, McClelland GAH (1958) Natural hosts of some species of Taeniorhynchus Lynch Arribalzaga (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in Uganda, as determined by the precipitin test. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 52: 186-190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. Woodbury EN, Barnhart CS (1939) Tests on crawling insects. Soap Sanit Chem 15: 93-113Google Scholar
  351. World Health Organization (1975) Manual on practical entomology in malaria. Part II. Methods and techniques. WHO Offset Publication, Geneva, No. 13Google Scholar
  352. World Health Organization (1992) Entomological Field Techniques for Malaria Con-trol. Part I. Learner’s Guide. World Health Organization, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  353. Yadav RS, Sharma RC, Bhatt RM, Sharma VP (1989) Studies on the anopheline fauna of Kheda district and species specific breeding habitats. Indian J Malariol 26: 65-74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. Yadav RS, Sharma VP, Chand SK (1997) Mosquito breeding and resting in tree-holes in a forest ecosystem in Orissa. Indian J Malariol 34: 8-16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. Yamashita Z, Ishii T (1977) Smoking method as a survey method of the arboreal arthropod fauna. Ecological studies on the arboreal arthropod fauna. 2. Rept. Environ Sci Mie Univ 2: 69-94Google Scholar
  356. Yasuno M, Rajagopalan PK (1977) Population estimation of Culex fatigans in Delhi villages. J Commun Dis 9: 172-183Google Scholar
  357. Yasuno M, Kazmi SJ, LaBrecque GC, Rajagopalan PK (1973a) Seasonal Change in Larval Habitats and Population Density of Culex fatigans in Delhi Vil-lages.’ WHO/VBC/73.429, 12 pp. (mimeographed)Google Scholar
  358. Yasuno M, Russel S, Rajagopalan PK (1973b) An Application of the Removal Method to the Population Estimation of Culex fatigans Resting Indoors. WHO/VBC/73.458, 9 pp. (mimeographed)Google Scholar
  359. Yasuno M, Rajagopalan PK, Russel S (1977) An application of the removal method to the population estimate of Culex fatigans resting indoors. Indian J Med Res 65 (Suppl.): 34-42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. Yuval B, Fritz GN (1994) Multiple mating in female mosquitoes - evidence from a field population of Anopheles freeborni (Diptera: Culicidae). Bull Entomol Res 84: 137-139Google Scholar
  361. Zaim M, Ershadi MRY, Manouchehri AV, Hamdi MR (1986) The use of CDC light traps and other procedures for sampling malaria vectors in southern Iran. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2: 511-515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. Zaim M, Manouchehri AV, Motabar M, Emadi AM, Nazari M, Pakdad K, Kayedi MH, Mowlaii G (1995) Anopheles culicifacies in Baluchistan, Iran. Med Vet Entomol 9: 181-186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. Zippin C (1956) An evaluation of the removal method of estimating animal popu-lations. Biometrics 12: 163-189Google Scholar
  364. Zippin C (1958) The removal method of population estimation. J Wildl Mgmt 22: 82-90Google Scholar
  365. Zukel JW (1949a) A winter study of Anopheles mosquitoes in southwestern Geor-gia, with notes on some culicine species. J Natn Malar Soc 8: 224-233Google Scholar
  366. Zukel JW (1949b) Observations on ovarian development and fat accumulation in Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Anopheles punctipennis. J Natn Malar Soc 8: 234-237Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V 2008

Personalised recommendations