A Highly Efficient Protocol for Micropropagation of North American Ginseng
North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is a native herb of Canada and the United States and is cultivated for its highly valued root used for medicinal purposes. It has a long production cycle as seeds are usually produced after a 3-year cultivation and must stratify for additional 12–18 months before germination. A clonal propagation method based on in vitro procedures would contribute to its genetic improvement by reducing the generation cycle time, would allow for the reduction in confounding genotype effects in field evaluations through the use of clonal material and would be useful for germplasm preservation.
The tissue culture of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is well studied with reports on callus cultures (e.g., Choi et al., 2003), protoplast culture (Arya et al., 1991), shoot organogenesis (e.g., Bonfill et al., 2002), somatic embryogenesis (e.g., Choi et al., 1999 and cited literature). These techniques have largely not been used successfully with American ginseng. There are only a Choi et al., 1999 and cited literature). These techniques have largely not been used successfully with American ginseng. There are only a few reports on the in vitro cultivation of North American ginseng. These cases report on the formation of somatic embryos on callus culture of embryonic, seedling, root or leaf explants (Brown et al., 2001; Zhou et al., 2006 and cited literature). North American ginseng is still considered to be recalcitrant in vitro because of the difficulty in obtaining plants with a well-developed root system.
KeywordsSomatic Embryo Somatic Embryogenesis Panax Ginseng Cotyledon Explants Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult
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- Brown DCW, Amyot L, Rintoul T (2001) Micropropagation of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.)—from test-tube to the field. In: Punja ZK (ed) Proceedings of the International Ginseng Workshop.Google Scholar