Myosins pp 289-323 | Cite as

Myosin V

  • James R. Sellers
  • Lois S. Weisman
Part of the Proteins and Cell Regulation book series (PROR, volume 7)

Abstract

Myosin V is a two-headed cargo-transporting myosin that is found in most animal genomes. Next to the conventional class II myosins, it is probably the most studied myosin class and is, perhaps, the best characterized in terms of its molecular basis for action. This is directly related to its molecular properties. As a cargo-carrying protein, it has adapted its kinetics to become a processive motor, which spends the majority of its kinetic cycle attached strongly to actin. This feature facilitates single-molecule experiments which have revealed tremendous insights into how this myosin functions. There is good general agreement that myosin V moves processively along actin via a “hand-over-hand” lever-arm mechanism taking 36-nm steps. The activity of mammalian myosin Va is regulated by intramolecular folding in which the globular tail domains fold back and contact the motor domains to form a compact triangular shaped molecule. The function of myosin V class molecules in cells has also been well studied. Myosin V moves many types of cargo in cells, both vesicular and nonvesicular, including melanosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, secretory vesicles, vacuoles and certain mRNAs. In many cases the receptor complexes for these cargoes have also been described. This chapter will review the state of knowledge of the kinetics, mechanics, regulation and cellular function of myosin V.

Keywords

intracellular motility molecular motor myosin ATPase mechano-chemical coupling cargo transport 

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Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • James R. Sellers
    • 1
  • Lois S. Weisman
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Molecular PhysiologyNational Heart,Lung and Blood InstituteBethesda
  2. 2.Department of Cell&Developmental Biology Life Sciences InstituteUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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