In the natural forest, pests of reproductive structures (flowers, fruits, and seeds) tend to be of little economic importance. Most tree species produce far more seed than is necessary to establish regeneration. Other factors such as competition tend to be far more important in tropical forests. However, when high value species are artificially regenerated through the production and planting of seedlings, a reliable seed source becomes critical. The need to improve the seed production capability is well established in West Africa (Okoro and Dada 1987; Ouedraogo and Verwey 1987). Many species like wawa are known to have irregular seed years (Taylor 1960; Danso 1970; Kudler and Jones 1970). Insects that infest seeds can be a significant factor in this variability in seed production (Kudler and Jones 1970). The significant role insects play in reducing the availability of seeds is recognized in other parts of Africa as well (Shakacite 1987; Hassani and Messaoudi 1986; Ross 1979; Rasplus 1988).


Seed Orchard Reproductive Structure Exit Hole Larva Feed Mature Larva 
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© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

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