Advertisement

Creatine and Creatine Kinase in Health and Disease – A Bright Future Ahead?

  • Markus Wyss
  • Olivier Braissant
  • Ivo Pischel
  • Gajja S. Salomons
  • Andreas Schulze
  • Sylvia Stockler
  • Theo Wallimann
Part of the Subcellular Biochemistry book series (SCBI, volume 46)

Abstract

Many links are reported or suspected between the functioning of creatine, phosphocreatine, the creatine kinase isoenzymes or the creatine biosynthesis enzymes on one hand, and health or disease on the other hand. The aim of the present book was to outline our current understanding on many of these links. In this chapter, we summarize the main messages and conclusions presented in this book. In addition, we refer to a number of recent publications that highlight the pleiotropy in physiological functions of creatine and creatine kinase, and which suggest that numerous discoveries on new functions of this system are still ahead of us. Finally, we present our views on the most promising future avenues of research to deepen our knowledge on creatine and creatine kinase. In particular, we elaborate on how state-of-the-art high-throughput analytical (“omics”) technologies and systems biology approaches may be used successfully to unravel the complex network of interdependent physiological functions related to creatine and creatine kinase

Keywords

Creatine Kinase Creatine Kinase Activity Creatine Supplementation Creatine Monohydrate Superior Olivary Complex 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alfieri, R.R., Bonelli, M.A., Cavazzoni, A., Brigotti, M., Fumarola, C., Sestili, P., Mozzoni, P., De Palma, G., Mutti, A., Carnicelli, D., Vacondio, F., Silva, C., Borghetti, A.F., Wheeler, K.P., and Petronini, P.G., 2006, Creatine as a compatible osmolyte in muscle cells exposed to hypertonic stress. J. Physiol. 576: 391–401.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Andres, R.H., Ducray, A.D., Huber, A.W., Perez-Bouza, A., Krebs, S.H., Schlattner, U., Seiler, R.W., Wallimann, T., and Widmer, H.R., 2005a, Effects of creatine treatment on survival and differentiation of GABA-ergic neurons in cultured striatal tissue. J. Neurochem. 95: 33–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andres, R.H., Huber, A.W., Schlattner, U., Perez-Bouza, A., Krebs, S.H., Seiler, R.W., Wallimann, T., and Widmer, H.R., 2005b, Effects of creatine treatment on the survival of dopaminergic neurons in cultured fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue. Neuroscience 133: 701–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Antolic, A., Roy, B.D., Tarnopolsky, M.A., Zernicke, R.F., Wohl, G.R., Shaughnessy, S.G., and Bourgeois, J.M., 2007, Creatine monohydrate increases bone mineral density in young Sprague-Dawley rats. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 39: 816–820.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baric, I., Cuk, M., Fumic, K., Vugrek, O., Allen, R.H., Glenn, B., Maradin, M., Pazanin, L., Pogribny, I., Rados, M., Sarnavka, V., Schulze, A., Stabler, S., Wagner, C., Zeisel, S.H., and Mudd, S.H., 2005, S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase deficiency: a second patient, the younger brother of the index patient, and outcomes during therapy. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 28: 885–902.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baric, I., Fumic, K., Glenn, B., Cuk, M., Schulze, A., Finkelstein, J.D., James, S.J., Mejaski-Bosnjak, V., Pazanin, L., Pogribny, I.P., Rados, M., Sarnavka, V., Scukanec-Spoljar, M., Allen, R.H., Stabler, S., Uzelac, L., Vugrek, O., Wagner, C., Zeisel, S., and Mudd, S.H., 2004, S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase deficiency in a human: a genetic disorder of methionine metabolism. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 4234–4239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Beard, D.A., 2006, Modeling of oxygen transport and cellular energetics explains observations on in vivo cardiac energy metabolism. PLoS Comput. Biol. 2: e107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bélanger, M., Asashima, T., Ohtsuki, S., Yamaguchi, H., Ito, S., and Terasaki, T., 2007, Hyperammonemia induces transport of taurine and creatine and suppresses claudin-12 gene expression in brain capillary endothelial cells in vitro. Neurochem. Int. 50: 95–101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bender, A., Beckers, J., Schneider, I., Holter, S.M., Haack, T., Ruthsatz, T., Vogt-Weisenhorn, D.M., Becker, L., Genius, J., Rujescu, D., Irmler, M., Mijalski, T., Mader, M., Quintanilla-Martinez, L., Fuchs, H., Gailus-Durner, V., de Angelis, M.H., Wurst, W., Schmidt, J., and Klopstock, T., 2007, Creatine improves health and survival of mice. Neurobiol. Aging., in press.Google Scholar
  10. Bender, A., Koch, W., Elstner, M., Schombacher, Y., Bender, J., Moeschl, M., Gekeler, F., Muller-Myhsok, B., Gasser, T., Tatsch, K., and Klopstock, T., 2006, Creatine supplementation in Parkinson disease: a placebo-controlled randomized pilot trial. Neurology 67: 1262–1264.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Berneburg, M., Gremmel, T., Kurten, V., Schroeder, P., Hertel, I., von Mikecz, A., Wild, S., Chen, M., Declercq, L., Matsui, M., Ruzicka, T., and Krutmann, J., 2005, Creatine supplementation normalizes mutagenesis of mitochondrial DNA as well as functional consequences. J. Invest. Dermatol. 125: 213–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Blatt, T., Lenz, H., Koop, U., Jaspers, S., Weber, T., Mummert, C., Wittern, K.P., Stab, F., and Wenck, H., 2005, Stimulation of skin’s energy metabolism provides multiple benefits for mature human skin. Biofactors 25: 179–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bodamer, O.A., Bloesch, S.M., Gregg, A.R., Stöckler-Ipsiroglu, S., and O’Brien, W.E., 2001, Analysis of guanidinoacetate and creatine by isotope dilution electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Clin. Chim. Acta 308: 173–178.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bothwell, J.H., Rae, C., Dixon, R.M., Styles, P., and Bhakoo, K.K., 2001, Hypo-osmotic swelling-activated release of organic osmolytes in brain slices: implications for brain oedema in vivo. J. Neurochem. 77: 1632–1640.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bothwell, J.H., Styles, P., and Bhakoo, K.K., 2002, Swelling-activated taurine and creatine effluxes from rat cortical astrocytes are pharmacologically distinct. J. Membr. Biol. 185: 157–164.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Braissant, O., Bachmann, C., and Henry, H., 2007, Expression and function of AGAT, GAMT and CT1 in the mammalian brain. Subcell. Biochem. 46: 67–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Braissant, O., Henry, H., Villard, A.M., Zurich, M.G., Loup, M., Eilers, B., Parlascino, G., Matter, E., Boulat, O., Honegger, P., and Bachmann, C., 2002, Ammonium-induced impairment of axonal growth is prevented through glial creatine. J. Neurosci. 22: 9810–9820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brewster, L.M., Mairuhu, G., Bindraban, N.R., Koopmans, R.P., Clark, J.F., and van Montfrans, G.A., 2006, Creatine kinase activity is associated with blood pressure. Circulation 114: 2034–2039.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Brosnan, J.T., and Brosnan, M.E., 2007, Creatine: endogenous metabolite, dietary, and therapeutic supplement. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 27: 241–261.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Brosnan, J.T., da Silva, R., and Brosnan, M.E., 2007a, Amino acids and the regulation of methyl balance in humans. Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care 10: 52–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brosnan, M.E., Edison, E.E., da Silva, R., and Brosnan, J.T., 2007b, New insights into creatine function and synthesis. Adv. Enzyme Regul., in press.Google Scholar
  22. Buist, N.R., Glenn, B., Vugrek, O., Wagner, C., Stabler, S., Allen, R.H., Pogribny, I., Schulze, A., Zeisel, S.H., Baric, I., and Mudd, S.H., 2006, S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase deficiency in a 26-year-old man. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 29: 538–545.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Burklen, T.S., Schlattner, U., Homayouni, R., Gough, K., Rak, M., Szeghalmi, A., and Wallimann, T., 2006, The creatine kinase/creatine connection to Alzheimer’s disease: CK-inactivation, APP-CK complexes and focal creatine deposits. J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2006: 35936.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Callahan, L.A., and Supinski, G.S., 2007, Diaphragm and cardiac mitochondrial creatine kinases are impaired in sepsis. J. Appl. Physiol. 102: 44–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Canonaco, F., Schlattner, U., Pruett, P.S., Wallimann, T., and Sauer, U., 2002, Functional expression of phosphagen kinase systems confers resistance to transient stresses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by buffering the ATP pool. J. Biol. Chem. 277: 31303–31309.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Canonaco, F., Schlattner, U., Wallimann, T., and Sauer, U., 2003, Functional expression of arginine kinase improves recovery from pH stress of Escherichia coli. Biotechnol. Lett. 25: 1013–1017.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Carducci, C., Birarelli, M., Leuzzi, V., Battini, R., Cioni, G., and Antonozzi, I., 2002, Guanidinoacetate and creatine plus creatinine assessment in physiologic fluids: an effective diagnostic tool for the biochemical diagnosis of arginine:glycine amidinotransferase and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencies. Clin. Chem. 48: 1772–1778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Ceddia, R.B., and Sweeney, G., 2004, Creatine supplementation increases glucose oxidation and AMPK phosphorylation and reduces lactate production in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells. J. Physiol. 555: 409–421.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Chilibeck, P.D., Chrusch, M.J., Chad, K.E., Shawn Davison, K., and Burke, D.G., 2005, Creatine monohydrate and resistance training increase bone mineral content and density in older men. J. Nutr. Health Aging 9: 352–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Christie, D.L., 2007, Functional insights into the creatine transporter. Subcell. Biochem. 46: 99–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cisowski, M., Bochenek, A., Kucewicz, E., Wnuk-Wojnar, A.M., Morawski, W., Skalski, J., and Grzybek, H., 1996, The use of exogenous creatine phosphate for myocardial protection in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. (Torino) 37: 75–80.Google Scholar
  32. Cornelio, A.R., Rodrigues-Junior Vda, S., Rech, V.C., de Souza Wyse, A.T., Dutra-Filho, C.S., Wajner, M., and Wannmacher, C.M., 2006, Inhibition of creatine kinase activity from rat cerebral cortex by 3-hydroxykynurenine. Brain Res. 1124: 188–196.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cullen, M.E., Yuen, A.H., Felkin, L.E., Smolenski, R.T., Hall, J.L., Grindle, S., Miller, L.W., Birks, E.J., Yacoub, M.H., and Barton, P.J., 2006, Myocardial expression of the arginine:glycine amidinotransferase gene is elevated in heart failure and normalized after recovery: potential implications for local creatine synthesis. Circulation 114: I16–I20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Darrabie, M.D., Santacruz-Toloza, L., Goers, L., Toloza, E.M., and Jacobs, D.O., 2007, AMPK-activation increases activity of the creatine transporter expressed in an immortalized adult cardiac cell line. Biophys. J., Suppl. 21a, Abstract 284-Pos.Google Scholar
  35. de Groof, A.J., Oerlemans, F.T., Jost, C.R., and Wieringa, B., 2001, Changes in glycolytic network and mitochondrial design in creatine kinase-deficient muscles. Muscle Nerve 24: 1188–1196.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Delwing, D., Cornelio, A.R., Wajner, M., Wannmacher, C.M., and Wyse, A.T., 2007, Arginine administration reduces creatine kinase activity in rat cerebellum. Metab. Brain Dis. 22: 13–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Ducray, A., Kipfer, S., Huber, A.W., Andres, R.H., Seiler, R.W., Schlattner, U., Wallimann, T., and Widmer, H.R., 2006, Creatine and neurotrophin-4/5 promote survival of nitric oxide synthase-expressing interneurons in striatal cultures. Neurosci. Lett. 395: 57–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Ducray, A.D., Qualls, R., Schlattner, U., Andres, R.H., Dreher, E., Seiler, R.W., Wallimann, T., and Widmer, H.R., 2007, Creatine promotes the GABAergic phenotype in human fetal spinal cord cultures. Brain Res. 1137: 50–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Ellington, W.R., and Suzuki, T., 2007, Early evolution of the creatine kinase gene family and the capacity for creatine biosynthesis and membrane transport. Subcell. Biochem. 46: 17–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Epand, R.F., Schlattner, U., Wallimann, T., Lacombe, M.L., and Epand, R.M., 2007, Novel lipid transfer property of two mitochondrial proteins that bridge the inner and outer membranes. Biophys. J. 92: 126–137.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Fagbemi, O., Kane, K.A., and Parratt, J.R., 1982, Creatine phosphate suppresses ventricular arrhythmias resulting from coronary artery ligation. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 4: 53–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Feng, S., Zhao, T.J., Zhou, H.M., and Yan, Y.B., 2007, Effects of the single point genetic mutation D54G on muscle creatine kinase activity, structure and stability. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 39: 392–401.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Ferrier, C.H., Alarcon, G., Glover, A., Koutroumanidis, M., Morris, R.G., Simmons, A., Elwes, R.D., Cox, T., Binnie, C.D., and Polkey, C.E., 2000, N-Acetylaspartate and creatine levels measured by 1H MRS relate to recognition memory. Neurology 55: 1874–1883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Fujii, N., Aschenbach, W.G., Musi, N., Hirshman, M.F., and Goodyear, L.J., 2004, Regulation of glucose transport by the AMP-activated protein kinase. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 63: 205–210.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Galbraith, R.A., Furukawa, M., and Li, M., 2006, Possible role of creatine concentrations in the brain in regulating appetite and weight. Brain Res. 1101: 85–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Gerber, I., ap Gwynn, I., Alini, M., and Wallimann, T., 2005, Stimulatory effects of creatine on metabolic activity, differentiation and mineralization of primary osteoblast-like cells in monolayer and micromass cell cultures. Eur. Cell. Mater. 10: 8–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Ghosh, M., Talukdar, D., Ghosh, S., Bhattacharyya, N., Ray, M., and Ray, S., 2006, In vivo assessment of toxicity and pharmacokinetics of methylglyoxal. Augmentation of the curative effect of methylglyoxal on cancer-bearing mice by ascorbic acid and creatine. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 212: 45–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Groeneveld, G.J., Veldink, J.H., van der Tweel, I., Kalmijn, S., Beijer, C., de Visser, M., Wokke, J.H., Franssen, H., and van den Berg, L.H., 2003, A randomized sequential trial of creatine in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ann. Neurol. 53: 437–445.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Guerrero-Ontiveros, M.L., and Wallimann, T., 1998, Creatine supplementation in health and disease. Effects of chronic creatine ingestion in vivo: down-regulation of the expression of creatine transporter isoforms in skeletal muscle. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 184: 427–437.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hardie, D.G., Hawley, S.A., and Scott, J.W., 2006, AMP-activated protein kinase - development of the energy sensor concept. J. Physiol. 574: 7–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hearse, D.J., Tanaka, K., Crome, R., and Manning, A.S., 1986, Creatine phosphate and protection against reperfusion-induced arrhythmias in the rat heart. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 131: 21–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Heerschap, A., Kan, H.E., Nabuurs, C.I.H.C., Renema, W.K., Isbrandt, D., and Wieringa, B., 2007, In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy of transgenic mice with altered expression of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase and creatine kinase isoenzymes. Subcell. Biochem. 46: 119–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hemmer, W., Riesinger, I., Wallimann, T., Eppenberger, H.M., and Quest, A.F., 1993, Brain-type creatine kinase in photoreceptor cell outer segments: role of a phosphocreatine circuit in outer segment energy metabolism and phototransduction. J. Cell Sci. 106: 671–683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hespel, P., and Derave, W., 2007, Ergogenic effects of creatine in sports and rehabilitation. Subcell. Biochem. 46: 245–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hoyer, S., Lannert, H., Latteier, E., and Meisel, T., 2004, Relationship between cerebral energy metabolism in parietotemporal cortex and hippocampus and mental activity during aging in rats. J. Neural Transm. 111: 575–589.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. in ’t Zandt, H.J., de Groof, A.J., Renema, W.K., Oerlemans, F.T., Klomp, D.W., Wieringa, B., and Heerschap, A., 2003, Presence of (phospho)creatine in developing and adult skeletal muscle of mice without mitochondrial and cytosolic muscle creatine kinase isoforms. J. Physiol. 548: 847–858.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Ingwall, J.S., 2006, On the hypothesis that the failing heart is energy starved: lessons learned from the metabolism of ATP and creatine. Curr. Hypertens. Rep. 8: 457–464.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Ju, J.S., Smith, J.L., Oppelt, P.J., and Fisher, J.S., 2005, Creatine feeding increases GLUT4 expression in rat skeletal muscle. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 288: E347–E352.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Klein, A.M., and Ferrante, R.J., 2007, The neuroprotective role of creatine. Subcell. Biochem. 46: 205–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lensman, M., Korzhevskii, D.E., Mourovets, V.O., Kostkin, V.B., Izvarina, N., Perasso, L., Gandolfo, C., Otellin, V.A., Polenov, S.A., and Balestrino, M., 2006, Intracerebroventricular administration of creatine protects against damage by global cerebral ischemia in rat. Brain Res. 1114: 187–194.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lenz, H., Schmidt, M., Welge, V., Schlattner, U., Wallimann, T., Elsasser, H.P., Wittern, K.P., Wenck, H., Stab, F., and Blatt, T., 2005, The creatine kinase system in human skin: protective effects of creatine against oxidative and UV damage in vitro and in vivo. J. Invest. Dermatol. 124: 443–452.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Li, X., Burklen, T., Yuan, X., Schlattner, U., Desiderio, D.M., Wallimann, T., and Homayouni, R., 2006, Stabilization of ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase preprotein by APP family proteins. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 31: 263–272.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lindahl, G., Young, J.F., Oksbjerg, N., and Andersen, H.J., 2006, Influence of dietary creatine monohydrate and carcass cooling rate on colour characteristics of pork loin from different pure breeds. Meat Sci. 72: 624–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Loike, J.D., Zalutsky, D.L., Kaback, E., Miranda, A.F., and Silverstein, S.C., 1988, Extracellular creatine regulates creatine transport in rat and human muscle cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85: 807–811.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Louis, M., Lebacq, J., Poortmans, J.R., Belpaire-Dethiou, M.C., Devogelaer, J.P., Van Hecke, P., Goubel, F., and Francaux, M., 2003, Beneficial effects of creatine supplementation in dystrophic patients. Muscle Nerve 27: 604–610.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Lujan, H.L., Britton, S.L., Koch, L.G., and DiCarlo, S.E., 2006, Reduced susceptibility to ventricular tachyarrhythmias in rats selectively bred for high aerobic capacity. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 291: H2933–H2941.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lunardi, G., Parodi, A., Perasso, L., Pohvozcheva, A.V., Scarrone, S., Adriano, E., Florio, T., Gandolfo, C., Cupello, A., Burov, S.V., and Balestrino, M., 2006, The creatine transporter mediates the uptake of creatine by brain tissue, but not the uptake of two creatine-derived compounds. Neuroscience 142: 991–997.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Lygate, C.A., Fischer, A., Sebag-Montefiore, L., Wallis, J., Ten Hove, M., and Neubauer, S., 2007, The creatine kinase energy transport system in the failing mouse heart. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol., 42: 1129–1136.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. McCall, W., and Persky, A.M., 2007, Pharmacokinetics of creatine. Subcell. Biochem. 46: 261–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. McMorris, T., Harris, R.C., Howard, A.N., Langridge, G., Hall, B., Corbett, J., Dicks, M., and Hodgson, C., 2007, Creatine supplementation, sleep deprivation, cortisol, melatonin and behavior. Physiol. Behav. 90: 21–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. McMorris, T., Harris, R.C., Swain, J., Corbett, J., Collard, K., Dyson, R.J., Dye, L., Hodgson, C., and Draper, N., 2006, Effect of creatine supplementation and sleep deprivation, with mild exercise, on cognitive and psychomotor performance, mood state, and plasma concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 185: 93–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Meyer, L.E., Machado, L.B., Santiago, A.P., da-Silva, W.S., De Felice, F.G., Holub, O., Oliveira, M.F., and Galina, A., 2006, Mitochondrial creatine kinase activity prevents reactive oxygen species generation: antioxidant role of mitochondrial kinase-dependent ADP re-cycling activity. J. Biol. Chem. 281: 37361–37371.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Minami, S.B., Yamashita, D., Ogawa, K., Schacht, J., and Miller, J.M., 2007, Creatine and tempol attenuate noise-induced hearing loss. Brain Res. 1148: 83–89.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Morton, A.J., Hunt, M.J., Hodges, A.K., Lewis, P.D., Redfern, A.J., Dunnett, S.B., and Jones, L., 2005, A combination drug therapy improves cognition and reverses gene expression changes in a mouse model of Huntington’s disease. Eur. J. Neurosci. 21: 855–870.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Nagai, T., 2000, Acute myocardial infarction without raised creatine kinase activity. J. R. Soc. Med. 93: 315–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Neubauer, S., 2007, The failing heart - an engine out of fuel. N. Engl. J. Med. 356: 1140–1151.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Neumann, D., Wallimann, T., Rider, M.A., Tokarska-Schlattner, M., Hardie, G.D., and Schlattner, U., 2007, Signalling by AMP-activated protein kinase. In ‘‘Molecular Systems Bioenergetics – Energy for Life’’, Saks, V.A., ed., Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany.Google Scholar
  78. Norman, K., Stubler, D., Baier, P., Schutz, T., Ocran, K., Holm, E., Lochs, H., and Pirlich, M., 2006, Effects of creatine supplementation on nutritional status, muscle function and quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer - a double blind randomised controlled trial. Clin. Nutr. 25: 596–605.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Nothwang, H.G., Koehl, A., and Friauf, E., 2006, Comparative gene expression analysis reveals a characteristic molecular profile of the superior olivary complex. Anat. Rec. A Discov. Mol. Cell. Evol. Biol. 288: 409–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Oita, T., Imoto, S., Soma, M., Sakizono, K., Nakamura, K., Hosomi, K., Fukuda, K., Yamamichi, H., Shirane, H., Uchida, H., Kasakura, S., Koizumi, K., and Yoshikawa, J., 1988, Deficiency of creatine kinase MM fraction. Jpn. J. Clin. Pathol. 9: 1045–1050.Google Scholar
  81. Opii, W.O., Joshi, G., Head, E., Milgram, N.W., Muggenburg, B.A., Klein, J.B., Pierce, W.M., Cotman, C.W., and Butterfield, D.A., 2006, Proteomic identification of brain proteins in the canine model of human aging following a long-term treatment with antioxidants and a program of behavioral enrichment: Relevance to Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol. Aging, in press.Google Scholar
  82. Pena-Altamira, E., Crochemore, C., Virgili, M., and Contestabile, A., 2005, Neurochemical correlates of differential neuroprotection by long-term dietary creatine supplementation. Brain Res. 1058: 183–188.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Pereira Oliveira, P.R., Rodrigues-Junior, V., Rech, V.C., and Duval Wannmacher, C.M., 2007, Cystine inhibits creatine kinase activity in pig retina. Arch. Med. Res. 38: 164–169.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Persky, A.M., and Rawson, E.S., 2007, Safety of creatine supplementation. Subcell. Biochem. 46: 275–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Pischel, I., and Gastner, T., 2007, Creatine – its chemical synthesis, chemistry, and legal status. Subcell. Biochem. 46: 291–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Poon, H.F., Castegna, A., Farr, S.A., Thongboonkerd, V., Lynn, B.C., Banks, W.A., Morley, J.E., Klein, J.B., and Butterfield, D.A., 2004, Quantitative proteomics analysis of specific protein expression and oxidative modification in aged senescence-accelerated-prone 8 mice brain. Neuroscience 126: 915–926.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Poon, H.F., Farr, S.A., Thongboonkerd, V., Lynn, B.C., Banks, W.A., Morley, J.E., Klein, J.B., and Butterfield, D.A., 2005, Proteomic analysis of specific brain proteins in aged SAMP8 mice treated with alpha-lipoic acid: implications for aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Neurochem. Int. 46: 159–168.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Rae, C., Digney, A.L., McEwan, S.R., and Bates, T.C., 2003, Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 270: 2147–2150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rocic, B., Lovrencic, M.V., Poje, M., and Ashcroft, S.J., 2007, Effect of creatine on the pancreatic beta-cell. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes 115: 29–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Rosa, R.B., Schuck, P.F., de Assis, D.R., Latini, A., Dalcin, K.B., Ribeiro, C.A., da, C.F.G., Maria, R.C., Leipnitz, G., Perry, M.L., Filho, C.S., Wyse, A.T., Wannmacher, C.M., and Wajner, M., 2005, Inhibition of energy metabolism by 2-methylacetoacetate and 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyrate in cerebral cortex of developing rats. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 28: 501–515.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Ruda, M., Samarenko, M.B., Afonskaya, N.I., and Saks, V.A., 1988, Reduction of ventricular arrhythmias by phosphocreatine (Neoton) in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Am. Heart J. 116:\break 393–397.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Sakellaris, G., Kotsiou, M., Tamiolaki, M., Kalostos, G., Tsapaki, E., Spanaki, M., Spilioti, M., Charissis, G., and Evangeliou, A., 2006, Prevention of complications related to traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents with creatine administration: an open label randomized pilot study. J. Trauma 61: 322–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Saks, V., Dzeja, P., Schlattner, U., Vendelin, M., Terzic, A., and Wallimann, T., 2006a, Cardiac system bioenergetics: metabolic basis of the Frank-Starling law. J. Physiol. 571: 253–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Saks, V., Favier, R., Guzun, R., Schlattner, U., and Wallimann, T., 2006b, Molecular system bioenergetics: regulation of substrate supply in response to heart energy demands. J. Physiol. 577:\break 769–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Saks, V.A., ed., 2007, Molecular System Bioenergetics – Energy for Life. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany.Google Scholar
  96. Saks, V., Kaambre, T., Guzun, R., Anmann, T., Sikk, P., Schlattner, U., Wallimann, T., Aliev, M., and Vendelin, M., 2007, The creatine kinase phosphotransfer network: thermodynamic and kinetic considerations, the impact of the mitochondrial outer membrane and modelling approaches. Subcell. Biochem. 46: 27–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Schlattner, U., Mockli, N., Speer, O., Werner, S., and Wallimann, T., 2002, Creatine kinase and creatine transporter in normal, wounded, and diseased skin. J. Invest. Dermatol. 118: 416–423.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Schlattner, U., Tokarska-Schlattner, M., and Wallimann, T., 2006, Mitochondrial creatine kinase in human health and disease. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1762: 164–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Schulze, A., and Battini, R., 2007, Pre-symptomatic treatment of creatine biosynthesis defects. Subcell. Biochem. 46: 167–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Schulze, A., Hoffmann, G.F., Bachert, P., Kirsch, S., Salomons, G.S., Verhoeven, N.M., and Mayatepek, E., 2006, Presymptomatic treatment of neonatal guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency. Neurology 67: 719–721.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Shibuya, J., Matsumoto, T., Takahashi, K., Sugisawa, K., Yasutomi, N., Kawashima, S., Naruse, H., Tateishi, J., Iwasaki, T., and Tozawa, T., 1992, The first report of a case with acute myocardial infarction showing familial deficiency of creatine kinase. Intern. Med. 31: 611–616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Shin, J.B., Streijger, F., Beynon, A., Peters, T., Gadzala, L., McMillen, D., Bystrom, C., Van der Zee, C.E., Wallimann, T., and Gillespie, P.G., 2007, Hair bundles are specialized for ATP delivery via creatine kinase. Neuron 53: 371–386.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Sijens, P.E., Reijngoud, D.J., Soorani-Lunsing, R.J., Oudkerk, M., and van Spronsen, F.J., 2006, Cerebral 1H MR spectroscopy showing elevation of brain guanidinoacetate in argininosuccinate lyase deficiency. Mol. Genet. Metab. 88: 100–102.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Stahl, C.A., Carlson-Shannon, M.S., Wiegand, B.R., Meyer, D.L., Schmidt, T.B., and Berg, E.P., 2007, The influence of creatine and a high glycemic carbohydrate on the growth performance and meat quality of market hogs fed ractopamine hydrochloride. Meat Sci. 75: 143–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Stockler, S., Schutz, P.W., and Salomons, G.S., 2007, Cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes: clinical aspects, treatment and pathophysiology. Subcell. Biochem. 46: 149–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Streijger, F., Oerlemans, F., Ellenbroek, B.A., Jost, C.R., Wieringa, B., and Van der Zee, C.E., 2005, Structural and behavioural consequences of double deficiency for creatine kinases BCK and UbCKmit. Behav. Brain Res. 157: 219–234.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Tachikawa, M., Hosoya, K.-i., Ohtsuki, S., and Terasaki, T., 2007, A novel relationship between creatine transport at the blood-brain and blood-retinal barriers, creatine biosynthesis, and its use for brain and retinal energy homeostasis. Subcell. Biochem. 46: 83–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Tarnopolsky, M.A., 2007, Clinical use of creatine in neuromuscular and neurometabolic disorders. Subcell. Biochem. 46: 183–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Tarnopolsky, M.A., Mahoney, D.J., Vajsar, J., Rodriguez, C., Doherty, T.J., Roy, B.D., and Biggar, D., 2004, Creatine monohydrate enhances strength and body composition in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Neurology 62: 1771–1777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Valenzuela, M.J., Jones, M., Wen, W., Rae, C., Graham, S., Shnier, R., and Sachdev, P., 2003, Memory training alters hippocampal neurochemistry in healthy elderly. Neuroreport 14: 1333–1337.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. van Spronsen, F.J., Reijngoud, D.J., Verhoeven, N.M., Soorani-Lunsing, R.J., Jakobs, C., and Sijens, P.E., 2006, High cerebral guanidinoacetate and variable creatine concentrations in argininosuccinate synthetase and lyase deficiency: implications for treatment? Mol. Genet. Metab. 89:\break 274–276.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Vasques, V., Brinco, F., Viegas, C.M., and Wajner, M., 2006, Creatine prevents behavioral alterations caused by methylmalonic acid administration into the hippocampus of rats in the open field task. J. Neurol. Sci. 244: 23–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Vial, C., ed., 2006, Creatine Kinase. NovaScience Publishers, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  114. Videen, J.S., Michaelis, T., Pinto, P., and Ross, B.D., 1995, Human cerebral osmolytes during chronic hyponatremia. A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. J. Clin. Invest. 95: 788–793.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wallimann, T., Tokarska-Schlattner, M., Neumann, D., Epand, R.M., Epand, R.F., Andres, R.H., Widmer, H.R., Hornemann, T., Saks, V.A., Agarkova, I., and Schlattner, U., 2007, The phospho-creatine circuit: molecular and cellular physiology of creatine kinases, sensitivity to free radicals and enhancement by creatine supplementation. In ‘‘Molecular Systems Bioenergetics – Energy for Life’’, Saks, V.A., ed., Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany.Google Scholar
  116. Walsh, B., Hooks, R.B., Hornyak, J.E., Koch, L.G., Britton, S.L., and Hogan, M.C., 2006, Enhanced mitochondrial sensitivity to creatine in rats bred for high aerobic capacity. J. Appl. Physiol. 100: 1765–1769.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Watanabe, A., Kato, N., and Kato, T., 2002, Effects of creatine on mental fatigue and cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation. Neurosci. Res. 42: 279–285.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Wegmann, G., Huber, R., Zanolla, E., Eppenberger, H.M., and Wallimann, T., 1991, Differential expression and localization of brain-type and mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes during development of the chicken retina: Mi-CK as a marker for differentiation of photoreceptor cells. Differentiation 46: 77–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Weiss, J.N., Yang, L., and Qu, Z., 2006, Systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders: network perspectives of cardiovascular metabolism. J. Lipid Res. 47: 2355–2366.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Wyss, M., and Kaddurah-Daouk, R., 2000, Creatine and creatinine metabolism. Physiol. Rev. 80: 1107–1213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Wyss, M., and Schulze, A., 2002, Health implications of creatine: can oral creatine supplementation protect against neurological and atherosclerotic disease? Neuroscience 112: 243–260.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Yamamichi, H., Kasakura, S., Yamamori, S., Iwasaki, R., Jikimoto, T., Kanagawa, S., Ohkawa, J., Kumagai, S., and Koshiba, M., 2001, Creatine kinase gene mutation in a patient with muscle creatine kinase deficiency. Clin. Chem. 47: 1967–1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Young, J.F., Bertram, H.C., Theil, P.K., Petersen, A.-G.D., Poulsen, K.A., Rasmussen, M., Malmendal, A., Nielsen, N.C., Vestergaard, M., and Oksbjerg, N., 2007, In vitro and in vivo studies of creatine monohydrate supplementation to Duroc and Landrace pigs. Meat Sci. 76: 342–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Zemtsov, A., 2007, Skin phosphocreatine. Skin Res. Technol. 13: 115–118.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Zhou, D.Q., Hu, Y., Liu, G., Gong, L., Xi, Y., and Wen, L., 2006, Muscle-specific creatine kinase gene polymorphism and running economy responses to an 18-week 5000-m training programme. Br. J. Sports Med. 40: 988–991.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Zugno, A.I., Scherer, E.B., Schuck, P.F., Oliveira, D.L., Wofchuk, S., Wannmacher, C.M., Wajner, M.,and Wyse, A.T., 2006, Intrastriatal administration of guanidinoacetate inhibits Na+, K+-ATPase and creatine kinase activities in rat striatum. Metab. Brain Dis. 21: 41–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markus Wyss
    • 1
  • Olivier Braissant
    • 2
  • Ivo Pischel
    • 3
  • Gajja S. Salomons
    • 4
  • Andreas Schulze
    • 5
  • Sylvia Stockler
    • 6
  • Theo Wallimann
    • 7
  1. 1.DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., Biotechnology R&DCH-4002 BaselSwitzerland
  2. 2.Clinical Chemistry LaboratoryCentre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of LausanneCH-1011 LausanneSwitzerland
  3. 3.Finzelberg GmbH & Co. KGKoblenzer Straße 48-56Germany
  4. 4.Department of Clinical Chemistry, Metabolic UnitVU University Medical CenterDe Boelelaan 1117The Netherlands
  5. 5.Department of Paediatrics Division of Clinical and Metabolic Genetics and Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick ChildrenUniversity of Toronto555 University AvenueCanada
  6. 6.Department of Pediatrics, Division of Biochemical Diseases, British Columbia Children’s HospitalUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  7. 7.Institute of Cell Biology, ETH ZurichHönggerberg HPM-D24.1, Schafmattstrasse 1Switzerland

Personalised recommendations