Safety of Creatine Supplementation

  • Adam M. Persky
  • Eric S. Rawson
Part of the Subcellular Biochemistry book series (SCBI, volume 46)


The literature on creatine supplementation supporting its efficacy has grown rapidly and has included studies in both healthy volunteers and patient populations. However, the first rule in the development of therapeutic agents is safety. Creatine is well-tolerated in most individuals in short-term studies. However, isolated reports suggest creatine may be associated with various side effects affecting several organ systems including skeletal muscle, the kidney and the gastrointestinal tract. The majority of clinical studies fail to find an increased incidence of side effects with creatine supplementation. To date, studies have not found clinically significant deviations from normal values in renal, hepatic, cardiac or muscle function. Few data are available on the long-term consequences of creatine supplementation


Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Muscle Damage Total Body Water Creatine Supplementation Muscle Cramp 
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Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adam M. Persky
    • 1
  • Eric S. Rawson
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental TherapeuticsUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.Department of Exercise Science and AthleticsBloomsburg UniversityBloomsburgUSA

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