Geostatistical Estimation of Electromagnetic Exposure
The electromagnetic environment in urban areas is growing increasingly complex. Sources of electromagnetic exposure like TV, FM, GSM, Wifi and others are spreading continuously and in the case of Wifi their geographical locations cannot be cataloged exhaustively anymore. Furthermore, the complexity of any highly urbanized environment and the lack of information about the dielectric properties of buildings lead to complex configuration so that a precise deterministic modeling of the electromagnetic exposure at any a given location of interest is probably out-of-reach.
On the other hand there is a growing demand to assess the human exposure induced by these wireless communications. In a project between France Télécom R & D, Ecole des Mines and Supélec the application of geostatistical methods in this context is being explored.
Geostatistics provides the right framework for setting up such exposure maps and its spatial statistical model yields an estimate of exposure as well as an associated error (De Doncker et al., 2006).
The project consists of three phases: geostatistical evaluation of data generated by the numerical model EMF Visual (both in free space and with the addition of obstacles), statistical analysis of measurements performed in the area of the Quartier Latin in Paris and, finally, joint evaluation of an urban area both by statistical and deterministic numerical modeling.
The paper reports about the third phase of this ongoing project, in which the spatial variation is modeled using the variogram, followed by a spatial regression known as kriging. The paper presents results about using a kriging algorithm that integrates numerical model output as an external drift.
KeywordsSpectrum Analyzer Variogram Model Geostatistical Method External Drift Kriging With External Drift
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- ANFR (2004) Panorama du rayonnement électromagnétique en France. Technical report, Agence Nationale des Fréquences, Maisons-Alfort. Available on: www.anfr.frGoogle Scholar
- Daley R (1991) Atmospheric Data Analysis. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Chilèes JP, Delfiner P (1999) Geostatistics: Modeling Spatial Uncertainty. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- ICNIRP (1998) Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz). Health Phys, 74(4):494–522Google Scholar
- Wackernagel H (2003) Multivariate Geostatistics: an Introduction with Applications, 3rd edn Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Wiart J., Dale C., Bosisio A. V., Le Cornec A (2000) Analysis of the influence of the power control and discontinuous transmission on RF exposure with GSM mobile phones. IEEE Trans on EMC 42(4):376–385Google Scholar