Response of macro in vertebrates to warming, nutrient addition and predation in large-scale mesocosm tanks
There is increasing concern about the effect of climate change on aquatic systems. We examined changes in macroinvertebrate communities caused by increased temperature (3°C above ambient during summer only and continuous 3°C above ambient all year round), influences of fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) and addition of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in 48 large-scale (3000 1) tanks over a 2 year period. While numbers of Isopoda, Chaoborus, Corixidae, Ephemeroptera, Notonectidae and Odonata were reduced by the presence of fish, nutrient addition caused isopods, corixids, mayflies and odonates to increase in abundance. Impacts of temperature increase were surprisingly low, with only gastropods increasing in heated tanks, suggesting that, overall abundances of most macroinvertebrate taxa will not be severely affected by the predicted temperature rise. To determine if taxa were sampled representatively during the experiment, net sweep samples taken towards the end of the experiment were compared with final macroinvertebrate abundances when the complete contents of each tank were harvested. We found that net sweeping is an appropriate semi-quantitative method for most taxa in mesocosm tanks. However, mites, coleopteran adults and larvae, dipterans and Chaoborus were not adequately sampled. This might explain why we could not detect any treatment effects of temperature, fish or nutrients on mites, coleopterans and dipterans and calls for different sampling techniques for these taxa, especially in ponds with vegetation stands.
KeywordsGlobal climate change Temperature Sampling technique Sweepnet Gasterosteus aculeatus
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Atkinson, D., 1996. Ectotherm life-history responses to developmental temperature. In Johnson I. A., A. F. Bennett (eds) Animals and Temperature: Phenotypic and Evolutionary Adaptation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 183–204.Google Scholar
- Baulch, H. M., D. W. Schindler, M. A. Turner, D. L. Findlay & M. J. Paterson, 2005. Effects of warming on benthic communities in a boreal lake: implications of climate change. Limnology and Oceanography 50: 1377–1392.Google Scholar
- Costil, K. & J. Daguzan, 1995. Effect of temperature on reproduction in Planorbarius corneus (L) and Planor-bis planorbis (L) throughout the life-span. Malacologia 36: 79–89.Google Scholar
- Houghton, J. E. T., Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell & C. A. Johnson, 2001. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
- IPCC 2007 Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis-Summary for Policymakers, which is available on http://ipcc-wgl.ucar.edu/.
- Kozminsky, E. V., 2003. Seasonal dynamics of reproduction and reproductive parameters of Bithynia tentaculata (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia). Zoologichesky Zhurnal 82: 325–331.Google Scholar
- McKee, D., A. Atkinson, S. Collings, J. Eaton, I. Harvey, K. Hatton, T. Heyes, D. Wilson, L. Wolstenholme & B. Moss, 2000. Heated aquatic microcosms for climate change experiments. Freshwater Forum 14: 51–58.Google Scholar
- McKee, D., D. Atkinson, S. E. Collings, J. W. Eaton, A. B. Gill, I. Harvey, K. Hatton, T. Heyes, D. Wilson & B. Moss, 2003. Response of freshwater microcosm communities to nutrients, fish, and elevated temperature during winter and summer. Limnology and Oceanography 48: 707–722.Google Scholar
- Merritt, R. W., K. W. Cummins & V. H. Resh, 1996. Design of aquatic insect studies: collecting, sampling and rearing procedures. In Merritt R. W., & K. W Cummins (eds) An introduction to the aquatic insects of North America, 3 rd edn. Kendall/ Hull Publishing Company, Iowa 12–28.Google Scholar
- Moss, B., G. Phillips & J. Madgwick, 1996. A guide to the restoration of nutrient-enriched shallow lakes. Broads Authority, WW Hawes, UK.Google Scholar
- Moss, B., D. McKee, D. Atkinson, S. E. Collings, J. W. Eaton, A. B. Gill, I. Harvey, K. Hatton, T. Heyes & D. Wilson, 2003. How important is climate? Effects of warming, nutrient addition and fish on phytoplankton in shallow lake microcosms. Journal of Applied Ecology 40: 782–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Noges, P., T. Noges, L. Tuvikene, H. Smal, S. Ligeza, R. Kornijow, W. Peczula, E. Becares, F. GarciaCriado, C. Alvarez-Carrera, C. Fernandez-Alaez, C. Ferriol, R. M. Miracle, E. Vicente, S. Romo, E. Van Donk, W. van de Bund, J. P. Jensen, E. M. Gross, L. A. Hansson, M. Gyllstrom, M. Nykanen, E. de Eyto, K. Irvine, D. Stephen, S. Collins & B. Moss, 2003. Factors controlling hydrochemical and trophic state variables in 86 shallow lakes in Europe. Hydrobiologia 506: 51–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rosenberg, D. M. & V. H. Resh, 1992. Introduction to freshwater biomonitoring and benthic macroinvertebrates. In: Rosenberg D. M., V. H. Resh (eds) Freshwater biomonitoring and benthic macroinvertebrates. Chapman & Hall, New York, London 1–9.Google Scholar
- Walker, I. R., J. P. Smol, D. R. Engstrom & H. J. B. Birks, 1991. An assessment of chironomidae as quantitative indicators of past climatic-change. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48: 975–987.Google Scholar