Advertisement

The challenge of the food sufficiency through salt tolerant crops

  • Adriana Galvani
Review Paper

Abstract

This work is focused on deserts, as extreme environments, because the year 2006 has been declared Year of Deserts and Desertification by the United Nations (IYDD Program 2006). The loss of vital resources such as fresh water and soil, and the depletion of biodiversity are emerging hazards, able to transform beneficial situations into extreme environments. Desertification is generated by land degradation: the loss of biological productivity is caused by nature or by human-induced factors and climate change. Nearby the desertification process there is the increasing process of salinisation of soil and water, induced by irrigation itself, or by salt water ingress derived by tsunamis or hurricanes. Increased research on the development of salt-tolerant cultivars could, with appropriate management, result in the broader use of saline soils. Although careful application is necessary, the combination of sand, seawater, sun and salt-tolerant plants presents a valuable opportunity for many developing countries. Cooperation among plant ecologists, plant physiologists, plant breeders, soil scientists, and agricultural engineers could accelerate the development of economic salt tolerant crops. If saline water is available, the introduction of salt tolerant plants in poor regions can improve food or fuel supplies, increase employment, help stem desertification, and contribute to soil reclamation.

Keywords

2006 Year of Deserts Agronomic resources Demography Genetic manipulation Halophytes Saline lands Saline soils Salt tolerant crops Water management 

Abbreviations

EC

Electric Conductivity

S

Siemens

PGI

UE Designation of Origin Label

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrol IP, Yadan JSP, Massoud FI (1988) Salt affected soils and their management. Soils Bull 39:167–177Google Scholar
  2. Adams P (1991) Effects of increasing the salinity of the nutrient solution with major nutrients or sodium chloride on the yield, quality and composition of tomatoes grown in rockwool. J Hortic Sci 64(6):201–207Google Scholar
  3. Adams P (1992) Crop nutrition in hydroponics. Acta Hoeticulturae 323:289–297Google Scholar
  4. Ahmad R (1987) Saline agriculture at coastal sandy belt. University of Karachi–IWMI, ColomboGoogle Scholar
  5. Aronson JA (1989) Halophites. Salt- tolerant plants of the world. University of Arizona, Tucson, ArizonaGoogle Scholar
  6. AusAID (2006) Focus, 21, N. 1, Jan–Apr:10–11Google Scholar
  7. Bordoni A, Danesi F (2004) Una fonte di benessere, in Il Divulgatore 5:50–57Google Scholar
  8. Bottini L et al (1996) Stress salino: risposta di specie orticole e suggerimenti di tecnica colturale. L’Informatore Agrario 22:15–17Google Scholar
  9. Boyko (1996) Salinity and aridity. New approaches to old problems. Junk Publ., The Hague, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  10. Caliandro A, Molinari GP, Fornari L, Mecella G (2001) Qualità delle acque per uso irriguo. Ministero delle Politiche Agricole e Forestali. Metodi di analisi delle acque per uso agricolo e zootec. 8:1–30 Franco Angeli, MilanoGoogle Scholar
  11. Carlsson R (1983) Tropical plants for leaf protein concentrates. In: Telek I, Graham HD (eds) Leaf Protein Concentrate. AVI Publications, Westport, US, pp 193–210Google Scholar
  12. Caruso G (1993) Risposta Fisiologica del Pomodoro (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill.) alla Concentrazione Salina dell’Acqua d’Irrigazione. Italus Hortus 1:16–19Google Scholar
  13. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (1998–2000) AICRP on management of salt affected soils and use of saline water in agriculture. CSSRI, Karnal, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  14. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (1998) 25 years of research on management of salt-affected soil and use lime water in agriculture. CSSRI, Karnal, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  15. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (2000) 50 years of natural resource management research. CSSRI, Karnal, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  16. Cucci G Rubino P, Caliandro AA (2003) Effects of irrigation water with different salt concentrations and SAR values on soil salinisation and sodification. Ital J of Agr 7(1):41–48Google Scholar
  17. Davuluri GR et al (2005) Fruit-specific RNAi-mediated suppression of DET1 enhances carotenoid and flavonoid content in tomatoes. Nat Biotechnol 23:890–895PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dixon RA (2005) A two-for-one in tomato nutritional enhancement. Nat Biotechnol 23:825–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Downton WJS (1984) Salt tolerance of food crops: perspectives of improvement. CRC Critical Rev in Plant Sci 1(3):183–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Elder J, Ruscello J (1997) The challenge of communicating biodiversity In: Raven PH (ed) Nature and Human Society- The Quest for a Sustainable World. In: Proceeding of the 1997 Forum on Biodiversity. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., pp 455–461Google Scholar
  21. ESSP – (2006) Earth System Science Partnership (of IGBP) (PPT Presentation)Google Scholar
  22. Falavigna A (2004) Poche le varietà interessanti. Il Divulgatore 5:18–27Google Scholar
  23. Gallagher JL (1985) Halophytic crops for cultivation at seawater salinity. Plant Soil 89:323–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Galvani A (1994) L’acquicoltura – una rivoluzione azzurra. La Pianura 1:20–25Google Scholar
  25. García Olmedo F (2000) La terza rivoluzione verde: piante transgeniche biotecnologie e agricoltura moderna. Il sole 24-ore Pubbl., MilanoGoogle Scholar
  26. Glenn EP, O’Leary W (1985) Productivity and irrigation requirements of halophytes grown with seawater in the sonora desert. J Arid Environ 9(1):81–91Google Scholar
  27. Greenwood EAN (1986) Water use by trees and shrubs for lowering saline groundwater. Reclam Reveget Res 5:423–434Google Scholar
  28. Gupta GN et al (1986) Salt tolerance of some tree species at seedling stage. Indian Forester 112(2):101–113Google Scholar
  29. Hinman CW (1984) New crops for arid lands. Science 225:1445–1448CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hughes JB et al (1997) The loss of population diversity and why it matters. In: Raven PH (ed) Nature and Human Society-Proceedings of the 1997 Forum on Biodiversity. National Academy Press, Washington, pp 71–83Google Scholar
  31. IGBP (2005) International Geosphere Biosphere Programs Science Plan and Implementation Strategy. IGBP Report No. 53/IHDP Report No. 19. IGBP Secretariat, Stockholm, 64 ppGoogle Scholar
  32. Iyengar EER (1982) Reasearch on Seawater Irriculture in India. In: Sanpietro A (ed) Biosaline Reasearch. Plenum Press, New York, pp 165–175Google Scholar
  33. Logan CEI (1980) Use of Saline Water in Energy Development - Final Report. Utah Water Research Laboratory, College of Engineering, Utah State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  34. Loster T (2003) Facts, data, trends, topics. Munich 2:20–24Google Scholar
  35. Newton J et al (2005) Climate change and natural hazards in northern canada: integrating indigenous perspectives with government policy. Mitig Adapt Strat Global Change 10:541–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. O’Leary W (1987) Halophytic Food Crops for Arid Lands: In Strategies for Classification and Management of Native Vegetation for Food Production in Arid Areas, Report RM-150, Forest Service, USDA, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  37. Panel of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development Office of International Affairs - National Research Council - Saline Agriculture (1989). Salt Tolerant Plants for Developing Countries. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  38. Pasternak D (1987) Salt tolerance and crop production – a comprehensive approach. Annu Rev Phytopathol 25:271–291Google Scholar
  39. Pearce L (2005) The value of public participation during hazard, impact, risk and vulnerability (HIRV) analysis. Mitig Adapt Strat Global Change 10:411–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Petschel-Held G et al (1999) Syndromes of global change: a qualitative modelling approach to assist global environmental management. Environ Modell Assess 4:295–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pomareda C, Hartwich F (2006) Toward Sustainability – A Plan for Collaborative Research on Agriculture and Natural Resource Management. Nat Res Council, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  42. Römer S (2000) Elevation of the pro-vitamin A content of transgenic tomato plants. Nat Biotechnol 18:666–669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Saleh SA, Heuberger H, Schnitzer WH (2005) Alleviation of salinity effect on Artichoke productivity by Bacillus subtilis FZB24. J of Appl Botany Food Qual 79(1):24–32Google Scholar
  44. Serageldin IA (1997) World bank perspective. In: Raven PH (ed) Nature and Human Society-Proceedings of the 1997 Forum on Biodiversity. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, pp 413–419Google Scholar
  45. Singh NT (2005) Irrigation and Soil Salinity in the Indian Subcontinent: Past and Present. Lehigh University Press, BethlehemGoogle Scholar
  46. Sirigu A, Leoni S, Pisanu B, Gradina R (1999) Concentrazione salina e caratteristiche qualitative del pomodoro camone. L’Informatore Agrario 6:55–58Google Scholar
  47. Stevens MA (1979) Tomato quality: potential for developing cultivars with improved flavour. Acta Hortic 93:317–328Google Scholar
  48. Trentini L (2004) Una nuova geografia del prodotto. Il Divulgatore 27(5):6–17Google Scholar
  49. Trentini L, Piazza R (2005) Varie le proposte, sempre alta la qualità. Il Divulgatore 28(4):15–17Google Scholar
  50. Tyagi NK, Sakthivadivel R, Sharma DK, Ambast SK, Agrawal A (2003) Farmers Decision Making in Irrigation Commands: The Need and Scope for Improvement. CSSRI Synthesis Paper 1, Karnal, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  51. World Bank (2001) World Water Forum Electronic Resource: from The Hague to Japan, Washington, USGoogle Scholar
  52. Yensen NP (1988) Plants for Salty Soil, Arid Lands News 27: 3–10, University of Arizona, Tucson, USGoogle Scholar
  53. Zilberman D et al. (2004) The economics of climate change in agriculture. Mitig Adapt Strat Global Change 9:365–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geography Researcher, Department of EconomicsUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations