Electric-Field Induced Fatigue Crack Growth in Ferroelectric Single Crystals
As one important class of the functional materials, ferroelectrics have been widely used as sensors, actuators, and transducers in smart structures. However, due to a strong electro-mechanical coupling, ferroelectrics suffer rather high stress under cyclic electric field. The low fracture toughness (lower than 1MPa·√m) and large switching strain render the reliability issue a bottleneck for the performance against crack propagation of ferroelectrics in smart structures. The importance for the reliability of ferroelectric materials gives a strong impetus for the studies on the crack propagation and the underlying mechanisms [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. As fatigue crack growth in ferroelectric ceramics is often related with the grain boundary effects, a systematic study using single crystals is warranted for a better understanding of the electric-field-induced fatigue crack growth and its close relationship with the 90° domain switching.
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