Skip to main content

Effects of antenna length and material on output power and detection of miniature radio transmitters

  • Fish Telemetry
  • Conference paper
Developments in Fish Telemetry

Part of the book series: Developments in Hydrobiology 195 ((DIHY,volume 195))

  • 843 Accesses

Abstract

The optimal antenna of transmitters used in small aquatic animals is often a compromise between efficient radio wave propagation and effects on animal behavior. Radio transmission efficiency generally increases with diameter and length of the conductor, but increased antenna length or weight can adversely affect animal behavior. We evaluated the effects of changing antenna length and material on the subsequent tag output power, reception, and detection of tagged fish. In a laboratory, we compared the relative signal strengths in water of 150 MHz transmitters over a range of antenna lengths (from 6 to 30 cm) and materials (one weighing about half of the other). The peak relative signal strengths were at 20 and 22 cm, which are approximately one wavelength underwater at the test frequency. The peak relative signal strengths at these lengths were approximately 50% greater than those of 30 cm antennas, a length commonly used in fisheries research. Few significant differences were present in distances for the operator to hear or the telemetry receiver to decode transmitters from a boat-mounted receiving system based on antenna length, but the percent of tagged fish detected passing a hydroelectric dam fitted with an array of receiving systems was significantly greater at the antenna length with peak output power in laboratory tests. This study indicates careful choice of antenna length and material of small transmitters can be used to reduce weight and possible antenna effects on animal behavior, to maximize tag output power and detection, or to balance these factors based on the needs of the application.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 169.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  • Adams, N. A., D. W. Rondorf, S. D. Evans, J. E. Kelly & R. W. Perry, 1998. Effects of surgically and gastrically implanted radio tags on swimming performance and predator avoidance of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 55: 781–787.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Allison, P. D., 1999. Logistic Regression using the SAS System: Theory and Application. SAS Institute Inc, Cary, North Carolina, USA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anglea, S. M., D. R. Geist, R. S. Brown & K. A. Deters, 2004. Effects of acoustic tags on swimming performance and predator avoidance of juvenile Chinook salmon. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 24: 162–170.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Beeman, J. W., P. V. Haner & A. G. Maule, 1998. Evaluation of a new miniature pressure-sensitive radio transmitter. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 8: 458–464.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Beeman, J. W., C. Grant & P. V. Haner, 2004. Comparison of three underwater antennas for use in radio telemetry. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 24: 275–281.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cheek, T. E., M. J. Van den Avyle & C. C. Coutant, 1985. Influences of water quality in distribution of striped bass in a Tennessee River impoundment. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 114: 67–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cooke, S. J. & C. M. Bunt, 2001. Assessment of internal and external antenna configurations of radio tags implanted in smallmouth bass. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 21: 236–241.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • DeMaw, D., 1987. W1FB’s Antenna Notebook. The American Radio Relay League, Newington, Connecticut, USA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Guy, C., H. Blankenship & L. Nielsen, 1996. Tagging and marking. In Murphy, B. W. & D. W. Willis (eds), Fisheries Techniques, 2nd edn. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, 353–384.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, G. E., N. A. Adams, R. L. Johnson, D. W. Rondorf, D. D. Dauble & T. L. Barila, 2000. Evaluation of the prototype surface bypass for salmonid smolts in spring 1996 and 1997 at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River, Washington. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 129: 381–397.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Littell, R. C., G. A. Milliken, W. W. Stroup & R. D. Wolfinger, 1996. SAS System for Mixed Models. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Martinelli, T. L. & R. S. Shively, 1997. Seasonal distribution, movements and habitat associations of northern squawfish in two lower Columbia River reservoirs. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 13: 543–556.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Martinelli, T. L., H. C. Hansel & R. S. Shively, 1998. Growth and physiological responses to surgical and gastric radio tag implantation techniques in subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Hydrobiologia 371/372: 79–87.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moser, M. L., A. L. Matter, L. C. Stuehrenberg & T. C. Bjorn, 2002. Use of an extensive radio receiver network to document Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) entrance efficiency at fishways in the Lower Columbia River, USA. Hydrobiologia 483: 45–53.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stokes, M. E., C. S. Davis & G. G. Koch, 2000. Categorical Data Analysis Using the SAS System, 2nd edn. SAS Institute Inc, Cary, North Carolina, USA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Winter, J., 1996. Advances in underwater biotelemetry. In Murphy, B. W. & D. W. Willis, (eds), Fisheries Techniques, 2nd edn. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, 550–590.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to John W. Beeman .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

About this paper

Cite this paper

Beeman, J.W., Bower, N., Juhnke, S., Dingmon, L., van den Tillaart, M., Thomas, T. (2007). Effects of antenna length and material on output power and detection of miniature radio transmitters. In: Almeida, P.R., Quintella, B.R., Costa, M.J., Moore, A. (eds) Developments in Fish Telemetry. Developments in Hydrobiology 195, vol 195. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6237-7_21

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics