Advertisement

Qualitative Career Assessment: A Higher Profile in the 21st Century?

  • Mary McMahon

Qualitative career assessment has been variously described as “informal forms of assessment” (Okocha, 1998, pp. 151–152), and as “methods that are flexible, open-ended, holistic, and nonstatistical” (Goldman, 1992, p. 616). Common forms of qualitative career assessment include card sorts, timelines, and genograms, all of which demand a proactive role for clients in the assessment process.

Capturing much of what has previously been said, a more comprehensive description explains that qualitative assessment “involves non-standardised and non-quantitatively based measurement that provides an informal means of gaining a more holistic and integrative understanding of personal meanings associated with life experiences” (Palladino Schultheiss, 2005, p. 382). Consequently, in recent years qualitative career assessment has been strongly aligned with constructivist theory and approaches to career counselling with their emphasis on active agency and the construction of meaning within the context of life. However, it should not be assumed that all qualitative career assessment is constructivist in orientation as some can be used in more traditional objective, matching and predictive ways that are in keeping with the logical positivist worldview. Indeed, the logical positivist worldview informs most career assessment which is in general quantitative in nature. Such assessment has retained a high profile in career counselling work compared with qualitative career assessment which has to date had a very limited profile.

Keywords

Career Development Assessment Process Qualitative Assessment Career Assessment Career Counselling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arbona, C. (2000). Practice and research in career counseling and development – 1999. The Career Development Quarterly, 49, 98–134.Google Scholar
  2. Amundson, N. E. (2003). Active engagement enhancing the career counselling process (2nd ed.). Richmond, Canada: Ergon Communications.Google Scholar
  3. Bannister, D., & Mair, J. M. M. (1968). The evaluation of personal constructs. London: Academic.Google Scholar
  4. Bradley, R. W. (1994). Tests and counseling: How did we ever become partners? Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 26, 224–226.Google Scholar
  5. Brott, P. E. (2001). The storied approach: A postmodern perspective for career counseling. The Career Development Quarterly, 49, 304–313.Google Scholar
  6. Brott, P. E. (2004). Constructivist assessment in career counseling. Journal of Career Development, 30, 189–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown, D. (2002). Introduction to theories of career development and choice: Origins, evolution, and current efforts. In D. Brown & Associates (Eds.), Career choice and development (4th ed., pp. 1–23). San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  8. Brown, D., & Brooks, L. (1996). Introduction to theories of career development and choice. In D. Brown & L. Brooks (Eds.), Career choice and development (3rd ed., pp. 1–30). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  9. Chartrand, J. M., & Walsh, W. B. (2001). Career assessment: Changes and trends. In F. T. L. Leong & A. Barak (Eds.), Contemporary models of vocational psychology (pp. 231–255). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  10. Dagley, J. C., & Salter, S. K. (2004). Practice and research in career counseling and development–2003. The Career Development Quarterly, 53, 98–157.Google Scholar
  11. Dewey, C. R. (1974). Exploring interests: A non-sexist method. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 52, 311–315.Google Scholar
  12. Dolliver, R. H. (1967). An adaptation of the Tyler vocational card sort. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 45, 916–920.Google Scholar
  13. Flores, L. Y., Scott, A. B., Wang, Y., Yakushko, O., McCloskey, C. M., Spencer, K. G., et al. (2003). Practice and research in career counseling and development–2002. The Career Development Quarterly, 52, 98–131.Google Scholar
  14. Forster, J. R. (1992). Eliciting personal constructs and articulating goals. Journal of Career Development, 18, 175–185.Google Scholar
  15. Goldman, L. (1983). The vocational card sort technique: A different view. Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance, 16, 107–109.Google Scholar
  16. Goldman, L. (1990). Qualitative assessment. The Counseling Psychologist, 18, 205–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goldman, L. (1992). Qualitative assessment: An approach for counselors. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 616–621.Google Scholar
  18. Guindon, M. H., & Richmond, L. J. (2005). Practice and research in career counseling and development–2004. The Career Development Quarterly, 54, 90–137.Google Scholar
  19. Gysbers, N. C., Heppner, M. J., & Johnston, J. A. (2003). Career counseling. Process, issues and techniques (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  20. Jankowicz, A. D. (1987). Whatever became of George Kelly?: Applications and implications. American Psychologist, 42, 481–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jones, L. K. (1994). Frank Parsons’ contribution to career counseling. Journal of Career Development, 20, 297–294.Google Scholar
  22. Kelly, G. A. (1955). The psychology of personal constructs (Vols. 1–2). New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  23. Krumboltz, J. D. (1993). Integrating career counseling and personal counseling. The Career Development Quarterly, 42, 143–148.Google Scholar
  24. Luzzo, D. A., & MacGregor, M. W. (2001). Practice and research in career development–2000. The Career Development Quarterly, 50, 98–139.Google Scholar
  25. McDaniels, C. (1994). Frank Parsons: His heritage leads us into the 21st century. Journal of Career Development, 20, 327–332.Google Scholar
  26. McMahon, M., & Patton, W. (2002). Using qualitative assessment in career counselling. International Journal of Educational and Vocational Guidance, 2(1), 51–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McMahon, M., & Patton, W. (2003). Using timelines in career counselling. In M. McMahon & W. Patton (Eds.), Ideas for career practitioners: Celebrating excellence in Australian career practice (pp. 133–134). Brisbane, Australia: Australian Academic Press.Google Scholar
  28. McMahon, M., & Patton, W. (2006). Qualitative career assessment. In M. McMahon & W. Patton (Eds.), Career counselling: Constructivist approaches (pp. 163–175). Abingdon, Oxon, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. McMahon, M., Patton, W., & Watson, M. (2003). Developing qualitative career assessment processes. The Career Development Quarterly, 51, 194–202.Google Scholar
  30. McMahon, M., Patton, W., & Watson, M. (2004). Creating career stories through reflection: An application of the Systems Theory Framework of career dvelopment. Australian Journal of Career Development, 13(3), 13–16.Google Scholar
  31. McMahon, M., Patton, W., & Watson, M. (2005a). The My System of Career Influences (MSCI): Facilitators, guide. Camberwell, VIC: ACER.Google Scholar
  32. McMahon, M., Patton, W., & Watson, M. (2005b). The My System of Career Influences (MSCI): Reflecting on my career decisions. Camberwell, VIC: ACER.Google Scholar
  33. McMahon, M., Watson, M., & Patton, W. (2005c). Developing a qualitative career assessment process: The My System of Career Influences reflection activity. Journal of Career Assessment, 13, 476–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Neimeyer, G. J. (1988). Cognitive integration and differentiation in vocational behavior. The Counseling Psychologist, 16, 440–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Neimeyer, G. J. (1989). Applications of repertory grid technique to vocational assessment. Journal of Counseling and Development, 67, 585–588.Google Scholar
  36. Neimeyer, G. J. (Ed.). (1992a). Personal constructs and career choice [Special issue]. Journal of Career Development, 18(3).Google Scholar
  37. Neimeyer, G. J. (1992b). Personal constructs in career counseling and development. Journal of Career Development, 18, 163–173.Google Scholar
  38. Neimeyer, G. J., & Neimeyer, R. A. (1993). Defining the boundaries of constructivist assessment. In G. J. Neimeyer (Ed.), Constructivist assessment: A casebook (pp. 1–30). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  39. O’Brien, K. M. (2001). The legacy of Parsons: Career counselors and vocational psychologists as agents of social change. The Career Development Quarterly, 50(1), 66–76.Google Scholar
  40. Okiishi, R. W. (1987). The genogram as a tool in career counseling. Journal of Counseling and Development, 66, 139–143.Google Scholar
  41. Okocha, A. A. G. (1998). Using qualitative appraisal strategies in career counseling. Journal of Employment Counseling, 35, 151–159.Google Scholar
  42. Palladino Schultheiss, D. E. (2005). Qualitative relational career assessment: A constructivist paradigm. Journal of Career Assessment, 13, 381–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Parker, H. L. P. (1996). The new career paradigm: An exploration of “intelligent career” behaviour among MBA graduates and students. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  44. Parker, P. (2002). Working with the intelligent career model. Journal of Employment Counseling, 39, 83–96.Google Scholar
  45. Parker, P. (2006). Card sorts: Constructivist assessment tools. In M. McMahon & W. Patton (Eds.), Career counselling: Constructivist approaches (pp. 176–186). Abingdon, Oxon, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  46. Parsons, F. (1909). Choosing a vocation. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  47. Patton, W., & McMahon, M. (1999). Career development and systems theory: A new relationship. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  48. Patton, W., & McMahon, M. (2006a). Career development and systems theory: Connecting theory and practice (2nd ed.). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  49. Patton, W., & McMahon, M. (2006b). Constructivism: What does it mean for career counselling? In M. McMahon & W. Patton (Eds.), Career counselling: Constructivist approaches (pp. 3–15). Abingdon, Oxon, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. Peavy, R. V. (1998). SocioDynamic counselling: A constructivist perspective. Victoria, Canada: Trafford.Google Scholar
  51. Peavy, R. V. (2004). SocioDynamic counselling: A practical approach to meaning making. Chagrin Falls, OH: Taos Institute.Google Scholar
  52. Pope, M., & Sveinsdottir, M. (2005). Frank, we hardly knew ye: The very personal side of Frank Parsons. Journal of Counseling and Development, 83, 105–115.Google Scholar
  53. Richardson, J. T. E. (1996). Handbook of qualitative research methods for psychology and the social sciences. Leicester, UK: BPS Books.Google Scholar
  54. Savickas, M. L. (1992). New directions in career assessment. In D. H. Montross & C. J. Shinkman (Eds.), Career development: Theory and practice (pp. 336–355). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  55. Savickas, M. L. (1993). Career counseling in the postmodern era. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 7, 205–215.Google Scholar
  56. Savickas, M. L. (1996). A framework for linking career theory and practice. In M. L. Savickas & W. B. Walsh (Eds.), Handbook of career counseling theory and practice (pp. 191–208). Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black.Google Scholar
  57. Savickas, M. L. (1997). The spirit in career counseling. In D. P. Bloch & L. J. Richmond (Eds.), Connections between spirit and work in career development (pp. 3–26). Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black.Google Scholar
  58. Savickas, M. L. (2002). Career construction: A developmental theory of vocational behavior. In D. Brown and Associates (Eds.), Career choice and development (4th ed., pp. 149–205). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  59. Spokane, A. R., & Glickman, I. T. (1994). Light, information, inspiration, cooperation: Origins of the clinical science of career intervention. Journal of Career Development, 20, 295–304.Google Scholar
  60. Subich, L. M. (1993). How personal is career counseling? [Special section]. The Career Development Quarterly, 42, 129–131.Google Scholar
  61. Subich, L. M. (1996). Addressing diversity in the process of career assessment. In M. L. Savickas & W. B. Walsh (Eds.), Handbook of career counseling theory and practice (pp. 277–289). Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black.Google Scholar
  62. Subich, L. M. (2001). Career counseling: The evolution of theory. In F. T. L. Leong & A. Barak (Eds.), Contemporary models in vocational psychology: A volume in honor of Samuel H. Osipow (pp. 257–278). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  63. Super, D. E. (1953). A theory of vocational development. American Psychologist, 30, 88–92.Google Scholar
  64. Thorngren, J. M., & Feit, S. S. (2001). The Career-O-Gram: A postmodern career intervention. The Career Development Quarterly, 49, 291–303.Google Scholar
  65. Tyler, L. E. (1959). Toward a workable psychology of individuality. American Psychologist, 14, 75–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tyler, L. E. (1961). Research explorations in the realm of choice. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 8, 195–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Walsh, W. B. (Ed.). (2005). Career assessment: Qualitative and mixed methods [Special issue]. Journal of Career Assessment, 13(4).Google Scholar
  68. Watson, M., & McMahon, M. (2005). Postmodern (narrative) career counselling and education. Perspectives in Education, 23(2), vii–ix.Google Scholar
  69. Whiston, S. C., & Brecheisen, B. K. (2002). Practice and research in career counseling and development–2001. The Career Development Quarterly, 51, 98–154.Google Scholar
  70. Whiston, S. C., & Rahardja, D. (2005). Qualitative career assessment: An overview and analysis. Journal of Career Assessment, 13, 371–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Williams, S. K. Jr. (1978). The vocational card sort: A tool for vocational exploration. The Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 26, 237–243.Google Scholar
  72. Young, R. A., & Chen, C. P. (1999). Practice and research in career counseling and development–1998. The Career Development Quarterly, 48, 98–141.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mary McMahon
    • 1
  1. 1.The University of QueenslandAustralia

Personalised recommendations