Career Guidance and Counselling in Primary and Secondary Educational Settings

  • Norman C. Gysbers

Career guidance and counselling began to emerge in countries around the world in the first part of the 20th century as a result of the growth of industrialisation (Keller & Viteles, 1937; Watts, 1996). Super (1974) pointed to the work of Parsons in the United States in the early 1900s, Lahy’s work in personnel selection in France in 1910, Gemelli’s efforts in personnel selection in Italy in 1912, Christiaens’ focus on vocational guidance in Belgium in 1911 and 1912, and the pioneer work in Geneva and London in 1914 and 1915 described by Reuchlin (1964) as early beginning efforts to establish career guidance and counselling in the United States and Europe.


Career Development Career Education Career Guidance Real Game Vocational Guidance 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norman C. Gysbers
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Missouri-ColumbiaUSA

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