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Metals

  • Bradley D. Fahlman

Abstract

Of all the 115 elements listed in the Periodic Table, 70% exhibit metallic character. Since the discovery of copper and bronze by early civilizations, the study of metals (i.e., metallurgy) contributed to most of the early investigations related to materials science. Whereas iron-based alloys have long been exploited for a variety of applications, there is a constant search for new metallic compositions that have increasing structural durability, but also possess sufficiently less density. The recent exploitation of titanium-based alloys results from this effort, and has resulted in very useful materials that are used for applications ranging from aircraft bodies to golf clubs. Indeed, there are many yet undiscovered metallic compositions that will undoubtedly prove invaluable for future applications.

Keywords

Cast Iron Duplex Stainless Steel Metallic Powder Metallic Structure Gray Cast Iron 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References and Notes

  1. 1.
    Hohmann, C.; Tipton Jr., B.; Dutton, M. Propellant for the NASA Standard Initiator October 2000 (NASA/TP-2000-210186). May be downloaded for free at http://ston.jsc.nasa.gov/collections/TRS/ techrep/TP-2000-210186.pdf
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    These cutoff values for steels are arbitrary. Iron at the lower end of this range is referred to either mild steel, or low-carbon steel.Google Scholar
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    A good reference for “crystal field theory” is Cotton, F. A.; Wilkinson, G.; Gaus, P. L. Basic Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd ed., Wiley: New York, 1994.Google Scholar
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    Liang, W.; Zhou, M.; Ke, F. Nano Lett. 2005, 5, 2039.Google Scholar
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    Note: think of the atom in the middle of the bcc unit cell - at lattice position (1/2, 1/2, 1/2). Since there are no atoms on the unit cell faces in a bcc array, there are no atoms that lie directly along the x , y , and z axes emanating from this central atom.Google Scholar
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    Each Boeing 747 contains ca. 1,500 of depleted uranium for this application.Google Scholar

Further Reading

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    Porter, D. A.; Easterling, K. E. Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys, 2nd ed. CRC Press: New York, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Honeycombe, R. W. K.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H. Steels: Microstructure and Properties, 2nd ed., Wiley: New York, 1995.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Grosvenor, A. W. Basic Metallurgy: Volume I, Principles, 3rd ed., American Society for Metals: Cleveland, OH, 1958.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beddoes, J.; Parr, J. G. Introduction to Stainless Steels, 3rd ed., ASM International: Materials Park, OH, 1999.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
    Magnetism: Fundamentals Lacheisserie, E. T.; Gignoux, D.; Schlenker, M., eds., Springer: New York, 2004.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mattis, D. C. The Theory of Magnetism Made Simple: An Introduction to Physical Concepts and to Some Useful Mathematical Methods, World Scientific Publishing Company: New York, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lefteri, C.; Arad, R. Metals: Materials for Inspirational Design, Rotovision: London, 2004.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sedriks, A. J. Corrosion of Stainless Steel, Wiley: New York, 1996.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Damping Structural Vibrations with Shape-Memory Metals, NASA Publication, University Press of the Pacific, 2004.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bradley D. Fahlman
    • 1
  1. 1.Central Michigan UniversityMount PleasantUSA

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