Advertisement

Seaweeds on the Abrasion Platforms of the Intertidal Zone of Eastern Mediterranean Shores

  • Rachel Einav
  • Alvaro Israel
Part of the Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology book series (COLE, volume 11)

Over millions of years of evolution, marine macroalgae (commonly referred to as seaweeds) have remained within a narrow and restricted niche, compared to the extensive area covered by oceans and seas. This narrow fringe is the intertidal zone, in which seaweeds are intermittently exposed to harsh conditions such as high irradiance, desiccation and high temperatures. What were the adaptive strategies and physiological needs of these plants to thrive and complete their life cycles over millions of years in these harsh environments? Seaweed’s first records date at least 300 million years, and within this period of time they went through several episodes of environmental change. Today, marine macroalgae comprise about 20,000 species of which a large number can be found within the intertidal zone. During evolution macroalgae diverged into three major categories or divisions: green (Chlorophyta), brown (Phaeophyta) and red (Rhodophyta) seaweeds. The present Mediterranean flora has a history of about five million years. After the isolation of the Mediterranean from the Atlantic, biota surviving the late cooling Miocene re-colonized the vacant basin and established the early Pliocene biota. Then, the Mediterranean Sea lost its coral reefs and its tropical character in general (Luning, 1990). The dramatic climate changes (glacial periods), which took place in this area in the Pleistocene, may have allowed a number of cold-temperate species to invade the area and to form disjunctive populations in cooler parts of the Mediterranean after the glaciations (Hoek and Breeman, 1990). Empty niche space and the climate changes in the late Pliocene and the Pleistocene may have promoted speciation and origin of endemic species. Today, the Mediterranean coasts are inhabited by a rich seaweed flora, including endemic, tropical, warm and cold-temperate species (Orfanidis, 1992).

Keywords

Intertidal Zone Rocky Shore Algal Community Tidal Zone Marine Macroalgae 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Axelsson, L., Ryberg, H. and Beer, S. (1995). Two modes of bicarbonate utilization in the marine green macroalga Ulva lactuca. Plant Cell Environ. 18: 439-445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barak, H., Shefer, E. and Cohen, Y. (2005). Environmental Quality of Israel’s Mediterranean Coastal Waters in 2004. Annual Report of the National Marine Environmental Monitoring Program. IOLR Report H34/2005a.Google Scholar
  3. Beer, S. and Eshel, A. (1983a). Photosynthesis ofUlva sp. I. Effects of desiccation when exposed to air. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 70: 91-97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beer, S. and Eshel, A. (1983b). Photosynthesis ofUlva sp. II. Utilization of CO2 and HCO3− when submerged. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 70: 99-106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Conway, T. J. and Tans, P. P. (1996). Atmospheric carbon dioxide mixing ratios from the NOAA cli-mate monitoring and diagnostics laboratory cooperative flask sampling network, 1967-1993. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, Colorado NDP-005, ORNL/ CDIAC-73.Google Scholar
  6. Crutzen, P. J. (1992). Ultraviolet on the increase. Nature 356: 104-105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Drechsler, Z., Sharkia, R., Cabantchik, Z. I. and Beer, S. (1994). The relationship of arginine groups to photosynthetic HCO3− uptake in Ulva sp. mediated by a putative anion exchanger. Planta 194: 250-255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Einav, R. (1998). Two observations of seaweeds from the Israeli coast: Boodleopsis pusilla and Caulerpa prolifera (Forsskal) Lamouroux (Chlorophyta, Caulerpales). Isr. J. Plant Sci. 46: 81-82.Google Scholar
  9. Einav, R. (2004). Seaweeds of eastern Mediterranean coast. Bar-Ilan Academic press. Ramat Gan. (in Hebrew, accepted by Koeltz scientific books to be published in English).Google Scholar
  10. Einav, R. and Beer, S. (1993). Photosynthesis in air and in water of Acanthophora nayadiformis grow-ing within a narrow zone of the intertidal. Mar. Biol. 117: 33-138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Einav, R., Beer, S. and Breckle, S. (1995). Ecophysiological adaptation strategies of some intertidal marine macroalgae of the Israeli Mediterranean coast. Mar. Ecol. 125: 219-228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Einav, R., Sharon, Y. and Zahavi, A. (1996). The relationship between wave energy and botanical population (macroalgae and terrestrials plants) on the Pigeon Island, The Mediterranean Sea, Israel. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference of the Israeli Society for Ecology and Environmental Quality Sciences. Jerusalem, Israel, VIB: 532-537. ISEEQS, Jerusalem, Israel.Google Scholar
  13. Franklin L. and Forster R. M. (1997). The changing irradiance environment: consequences for marine macrophyte physiology, productivity and ecology. Eur. J. Phycol. 32: 207-232.Google Scholar
  14. Friedlander, M., Krom, M. D. and Ben Amotz, A. (1991). The effect of light and ammonium on growth, epiphytes and chemical constituents of Gracilaria conferta in outdoor cultures. Bot. Mar. 34: 161-166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Goldsmith, V. and Golik, A. (1978). The Israeli wave climate and longshore sediment transport model. Israel. Oceanog. Lim. Res., Rep. 78/1, 56p.Google Scholar
  16. Goldsmith, V. and Sofer, S. (1983). Wave climatology of the southwestern Mediterranean: an inte-grated approach. Isr. J. Earth Sci. 32: 1-51.Google Scholar
  17. Gomez, I. and Figueroa, F. L. (1998). Effects of solar UV stress on chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics of intertidal macroalgae from southern Spain: a case study in Gelidium species. J. Appl. Phycol. 9: 1-10.Google Scholar
  18. Gröniger, A., Hallier, C. and Häder, D. P. (1999). Influence of UV radiation and visible light on Porphyra umbilicalis: photoinhibition and MAA concentration. J. Appl. Phycol. 11: 437-445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hoek, C. van den and Breeman, A. M. (1990). Seaweed biogeography of the North Atlantic: where are we now? In: D. J. Garbary and G. R. South, (eds.) Evolutionary biogeography of marine algae in the North Atlantic. NATO ASI Ser G22. Springer-Verlag. Berlin. pp. 55-87.Google Scholar
  20. Israel, A. and Friedlander, M. (1998). Inorganic carbon utilization and growth abilities in the marine macroalga Gelidiopsis sp. Isr. J. Plant Sci. 46: 117-124.Google Scholar
  21. Israel, A. and Hophy, M. (2002). Growth, photosynthetic properties, and Rubisco activities of marine macroalgae grown under current and elevated seawater CO2 concentrations. Global Change Biol. 8: 831-840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Israel, A., Martinez-Goss, M. and Friedlander, M. (1999a). Effect of salinity and pH on growth and agar yield of Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. liui in laboratory and outdoor culture. J. Appl. Phycol. 11: 543-549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Israel, A., Katz, S., Dubinsky, Z., Merrill, J. E. and Friedlander, M. (1999b). Photosynthetic inorganic carbon utilization and growth of Porphyra linearis (Rhodophyta). J. Appl. Phycol. 11: 447-453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jerlov, N. G. (1950). Ultra-violet radiation in the sea. Nature 166: 111-112.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kress, N. and Herut, B. (1998). Hypernutrificationin the oligotrophic eastern Mediterranean. A study in Haifa Bay, Israel. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 46: 645-656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Larkum, A. W. D. and Wood, W. F. (1993). The effect of UVB radiation on photosynthesis and res-piration of phytoplankton, benthic macroalgae and seagrasses. Photosyn. Res. 36: 17-23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lipkin, Y., Beer, S. and Eshel, A. (1993). The ability of Porphyra linearis (Rhodophyta) to tolerate prolonged periods of desiccation. Bot. Mar. 36: 517-523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lobban, C. S. and Harrison, P. J. (1994). Seaweed ecology and physiology. Cambridge University press. pp. 220-240.Google Scholar
  29. Lundberg, B. (1989). Food habits of Siganus rivulatus, a Lessepsian migrant, as adapted to algal resources at the coast of Israel. In: E. Spanier, Y. Steinberger and M. Luria, (eds.) Environmental Quality and Ecosystem Stability. ISEEQS Pub., Jerusalem: 5b: 113-124.Google Scholar
  30. Luning, K. (1990). Seaweeds. Their environment, biogeography and ecophysiology. John Wiley & Sons, NY. pp. 527.Google Scholar
  31. Orfanidis, S. (1992). Light requirements for growth of six shade-acclimated Mediterranean macroal-gae. Mar. Biol. 112: 511-515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Palenik, B., Price, N. M. and Morel, F. M. M. (1991). Potential effects of UV-B on the chemical envi-ronment of marine organisms: a review. Environ. Poll. 70: 117-130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Russell, G. (1987). Salinity and seaweed vegetation. In, R. M. Crawford (ed.). The physiological vege-tation of amphibious and intertidal plants. Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 32-35.Google Scholar
  34. Sinha R. P., Klisch M., Gröniger A. and Häder D. P. 2000. Mycosporine-like amino acids in the marine red alga Gracilaria cornea - effects of UV and heat. Environ. Exp. Bot. 43: 33-43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Smith, R. C. and Baker, K. S. (1979). Penetration of UV-B and biologically effective dose-rates in nat-ural waters. Photochem. Photobiol. 29: 311-323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Smith, R. C. and Baker, K. S. (1989). Stratospheric ozone, middle ultraviolet radiation and phyto-plankton productivity. Oceanogr. Mag. 2: 4-10.Google Scholar
  37. Sonin, O., Spanier E. and Pisanty, S. (1996). Undersize fishes in the catch of the Israeli Mediterranean fisheries - are there differences between shallow and deeper water? Proceedings of the 6th International Conference of the Israeli Society for Ecology and Environmental Quality Sciences. Jerusalem, Israel, VIB: 449-454. ISEEQS, Jerusalem, Israel.Google Scholar
  38. Wood, W. F. (1987). Effect of solar ultra-violet radiation on the kelp Eklonia radiata. Mar. Biol. 96: 143-150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zahavi, A. (2006). The processes and rate of rocky coast landscape development. Proceeding of the Annual Symposium of the Israeli Geographical Society. Hebrew University, Jerusalem. pp. 42.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rachel Einav
    • 1
  • Alvaro Israel
    • 2
  1. 1.Blue-EcosystemsIsrael
  2. 2.The National Institute of OceanographyIsrael Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Ltd.HaifaIsrael

Personalised recommendations