• Kamlakar Rajurkar
  • Marc Madou


Manufacturing processes convert raw material into desired parts to make usable and saleable products. All manufacturing processes are evaluated and then selected for specific applications based on the type and amount of energy involved, the process mechanism and its capability (including accuracy and repeatability), environmental effects, and economy. In addition to these measures, micromanufacturing processes also need to be evaluated on the quality of the removal (or plastic deformation or addition) of the smallest amount of material in one cycle, as well as the achievable precision of the related micromanufacturing equipment. This chapter begins by describing the status of the micromanufacturing processes observed during the WTEC visits to Asia and Europe. The state-of-the-art of micromanufacturing processes in the U.S. is also included in this chapter. The sites visited in Asia and Europe include industry, universities and research organizations. Specific issues of process mechanism, modeling and simulation, surface integrity, and scaling effects are summarized in the second part of this chapter.


Anisotropic Conductive Film Laser Micromachining Industrial Technology Research Institute Ultraprecision Machine Minimum Chip Thickness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Balendra, R., Y. Qin. 2004. Research dedicated to the development of advanced metal forming technologies. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 145, 144–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cao, J., N. Krishnan, Z. Wang, H. Lu. 2004. Microforming: Experimental investigation of the extrusion process for micropins and its numerical simulation using RKEM. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 126:4, 642–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cohen, A., G. Zhang, F.-G. Tseng. 1999. EFAB: Rapid, low-cost desktop micromachining of high aspect ratio true 3-D MEMS (Micro electro mechanical systems). In Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Conference, January 17–21, Orlando, USA.Google Scholar
  4. Dutta, M., R. V. Shenoy, L. T. Romonkiw. 1996. Recent advances in the study of electrochemical micromachining. J Eng Ind 118:29, 29–36.Google Scholar
  5. Ehrfeld, W., H. Lehr, F. Michel, A. Wolf. 1996. Micro electro discharge machining as a technology in micromachining. Proceedings of SPIE 2879, 332–337.Google Scholar
  6. FANUC ROBOnano alpha-0iB machining samples, (Accessed October 20, 2005).Google Scholar
  7. FANUC ROBOnano Ui, Brochure (2004).Google Scholar
  8. Fraunhofer Institut Lasertechnik (ILT). (Accessed October 20, 2005).Google Scholar
  9. Fraunhofer Institut Produktionstechnologie (IPK), (Accessed October 20, 2005).Google Scholar
  10. Fukuda Laboratory, Nagoya University, (Accessed October 20, 2005).Google Scholar
  11. Geiger. M, A. Mebner, U. Engel. 1997. Production of microparts: Size effects in bulk metal forming, similarity theory. Production Engineering 4:1, 55–58.Google Scholar
  12. Gershenfeld, N. Private communication to author. December, 2004.Google Scholar
  13. Goto. A., T. Magara, T. Moro. 1998. Formation of hard layer on metallic material by EDM. In Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium for Electro-Machining, May, Aachen, Germany.Google Scholar
  14. Goto. A., T. Moro, K. Matsukawa, M. Akiyoshi. 2001. Development of electrical discharge coating method. In Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium for Electro-Machining, May 9–11, Bilbao, Spain.Google Scholar
  15. Hitachi Anisotropic Conductive Film ANISOLM™. Brochure (2004).Google Scholar
  16. Hitachi Arranged Tubes Technology. Brochure (2004).Google Scholar
  17. Ikawa, N., R. R. Donaldson, R. Komanduri, W. Koenig, T. H. Aachen, P. A. McKeown, T. Moriwaki, I. F. Stowers. 1991a. Ultra-precision metal cutting: The past, present and future. Annals of the CIRP 40, 587–594.Google Scholar
  18. Ikawa, N., S. Shimada, H. Tanaka, G. Ohmori. 1991b. Atomistic analysis of nanometric chip removal as affected by tool-work interaction in diamond turning. Annals of the CIRP 40, 551–554.Google Scholar
  19. Ikuta, K. Biochemical Micro System Engineering Laboratory, Deptartment of Micro System Engineering, School of Engineering, Nagoya University, (Accessed October 20, 2005).Google Scholar
  20. IPK (Institut Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik) and IWF (Institut fur Werkzeugmaschinen und Fabrikbetrieb) handout. “Future,” page 3–34, Jan, 2004.Google Scholar
  21. ITRI (Industrial Technology Research Institute) Annual Report “An Introduction to ITRI Nanotechnology,” 2004, Taiwan, pages 1–56.Google Scholar
  22. Kang, S. and A. G. Cooper. 1999. Fabrication of high quality ceramic parts using mold SDM. Paper presented at the Solid Freedom Fabrication Symposium, August, Austin, USA, 427–434.Google Scholar
  23. Kawahara, N., T. Suto, T. Hirano, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Kitahara, N. Ooyama, T. Ataka. 1997. Microfactories: new applications of micromachine technology to the manufacture of small products. Microsystem Technology 3: 37–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kitahara, T., K. Ashida, M. Tanaka, Y. Ishikawa, N. Ooyama, Y. Nakazawa. 1998. Microfactory and Microlathe. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Microfactories, December 7–9, Tsukuba, Japan.Google Scholar
  25. Lee, K. and D. A. Dornfeld. 2002. An experimental study on burr formation in micro milling aluminum and copper, Transaction of the NAMRI/SME 30, 255–261.Google Scholar
  26. Liu, X., R. DeVor, S. Kapoor, K. Ehmann. 2005. The Mechanics of Machining at the Micro-Scale: Assessment of the Current State-of-the Science. Trans ASME Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 126, 666–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lucca, D. A., R. L. Rhorer, R. Komanduri. 1991. Energy dissipation in the ultraprecision machining of copper. Annals of the CIRP 40, 69–72.Google Scholar
  28. Lucca, D. A. and Y. W. Seo. 1993. Effect of tool edge geometry on energy dissipation in ultraprecision machining. Annals of the CIRP 42, 83–86.Google Scholar
  29. Lucca, D. A., Y. W. Seo, L. Rhorer. 1994. Energy dissipation and tool-workpiece contact in ultraprecision machining. STLE Tribology Transactions 37, 651–657.Google Scholar
  30. Masuzawa, T. 2000. State of the art of micromachining. Annals of the CIRP 49:2, 473–488.Google Scholar
  31. Masuzawa, T. 2001. Micro EDM. In Proceedings of 13th International Symposium for Electromachining, May 9–11, Bilbao, Spain.Google Scholar
  32. Matsuura Machinery Corporation, (Accessed October 20, 2005).Google Scholar
  33. Micro-Blast: Micropump based on liga and silicon technology, (Accessed October 20, 2005).Google Scholar
  34. Miraikan, (The National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation), (Accessed October 20, 2005).Google Scholar
  35. MIRDC (Metal Industries Research & Development) Research report, Taiwan, 2004, page 1–21, (Accessed October 20, 2005).Google Scholar
  36. Moriwaki, T., N. Sugimura, K. Manabe, K. Iwata. 1991. A study on orthogonal micromachining of single crystal copper. Transactions of the NAMRI/SME 19, 177–183.Google Scholar
  37. Ohmori, H. and T. Nakagawa. 1995. Analysis of mirror surface generation of hard and brittle materials by ELID (Electrolytic in-Process Dressing) grinding with superfine grain metallic bond wheels. Annals of the CIRP, 44:1, 287–290.Google Scholar
  38. Ohmori, H., K. Katahira, Y. Uehara, W. Lin. 2003. ELID-grinding of microtool and applications to fabrication of microcomponents, International Journal of Materials and Product Technology 18:4/5/6, 498–508.Google Scholar
  39. Okazaki, K. Micromachine tool to machine micro-parts. 2000. In Proceedings of the American Society for Precision Engineering 15th Annual Meeting, October, Scottsdale, Arizona.Google Scholar
  40. Okazaki, K. and T. Kitahara. 2000. Microlathe equipped with numerical control. Journal of the JSPE 67:11, 1878.Google Scholar
  41. Photosensitive film for µ-TAS ME-1000 series. Hardcopy of viewgraphs from presentation on [date], [location].Google Scholar
  42. Rajurkar, K.P., Z. Yu. 2003. Micro EDM and its applications. In Proceedings of SME’s Precision Micro Machining Technology and Applications Technical Conference, June 11–12, Minneapolis, USA.Google Scholar
  43. Regenfuß, P., L. Hartwig, S. Klötzer, R. Ebert, T. Brabant, T. Petsch, H. Exner. 2004. Industrial freeform generation of microtools by laser micro sintering. In Proceedings of the Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, D. Bourell, et al., eds., August 2–4, Austin, TX, 709–719.Google Scholar
  44. Research Activities Report, 2003 Robotics and Mechatronics, Nagoya University, page 1–72, March, 2004.Google Scholar
  45. RIKEN Research, brochure, 2004, Japan.Google Scholar
  46. Tönshoff, H. K., T. Masuzawa. 1997. Three dimensional micromachining by machine tools. Annals of the CIRP 46:2, 621–628.Google Scholar
  47. Ueda, K, K. Iwata. 1980. Chip formation mechanism in single crystal cutting of beta-brass. Annals of the CIRP 29, 65–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Vogler, M. P., S. G. Kapoor, R. E. DeVor. 2004. On the modeling and analysis of machining performance in micro-endmilling, Part I: Surface generation. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 126:4, 685–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Waldorf, D. J., R. E. De Vor, S. G. Kapoor. 1999. An evaluation of ploughing models for orthogonal machining, Journal of Manufacturing Sciences and Engineering 121, 550–558.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kamlakar Rajurkar
  • Marc Madou

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations