Mechanism of Action of Opioids and Clinical Effects

  • Enno Freye
  • Joseph Victor Levy


Opioid Receptor Respiratory Depression Opioid Analgesic Opium Poppy Analgesic Potency 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Enno Freye
    • 1
  • Joseph Victor Levy
    • 2
  1. 1.Heinrich-Heine-UniversityDüsseldorfGermany
  2. 2.University of the PacificUSA

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