Nectar production and presentation

  • Ettore Pacini
  • Massimo Nepi


Nectar Production Extrafloral Nectary Floral Nectar Nectar Volume Nectar Secretion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aizen, M.A., & Basilio, A. (1998). Sex differential nectar secretion in protandrous Alstroe-meria aurea (Alstroemeriaceae): is production altered by pollen removal and receipt? American Journal of Botany, 85, 245-252.Google Scholar
  2. Andrejeff, W. (1932). Über Nektarien und über die Menge des Nektars einiger Gehölzarten. Mitteilung Deutschland Dendrologie Gesellshaft, 44, 99-105.Google Scholar
  3. Arumugasamy, K., Subramanian, R.B., & Inamdar, J.A. (1990). Cyathial nectaries of Eu-phorbia neriifolia L.: ultrastructure and secretion. Phytomorphology, 40, 281-288.Google Scholar
  4. Ashworth, L., & Galetto, L. (2002). Differential nectar production between male and female flowers in wild cucurbit: Cucurbita maxima ssp. andreana (Cucurbitaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany, 80, 1203-1208.Google Scholar
  5. Baker, H.G. (1975). Sugar concentrations in nectars from hummingbird flowers. Biotropica, 7, 37-41.Google Scholar
  6. Baker, H.G., & Baker, I. (1983a). Floral nectar sugar constituents in relation to pollinator type. In: C.E. Jones & R.J. Little (Ed.), Handbook of pollination biology (pp. 117-141). New York: Scientific and Academic Editions. Google Scholar
  7. Baker, H.G., & Baker, I. (1983b). A brief historical review of the chemistry of floral nectar. In: B. Bentley & T. Elias (Eds.), The biology of nectaries (pp. 126-151). New York: Columbia University Press. Google Scholar
  8. Baker, H.G., & Baker, I. (1986). The occurrence and significance of amino acids in floral nectar. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 151, 175-186.Google Scholar
  9. Baker, D.A., Hall, J.L., & Thorpe, J.R. (1978). A study of the extrafloral nectaries of Ricinus communis. New Phytologist, 81, 129-137.Google Scholar
  10. Baum, S.F., Eshed, Y., & Bowman, J.L. (2001). The Arabidopsis nectary is an ABC-independent floral structure. Development, 128, 4657-4667.Google Scholar
  11. Belmonte, E., Cardemil, L., & Kalin Arroyo, M.T. (1994). Floral nectary structure and nectar composition in Eccremocarpus scaber (Bignoniaceae), a hummingbird pollinated plant of central Chile. American Journal of Botany, 81, 493-503.Google Scholar
  12. Bernardello, G. (2007). A systematic survey of floral nectaries. In: NicolsonS.W. , NepiM., & PaciniE. (Eds.), Nectaries and nectar (pp. 19-128). Dordrecht: Springer. Google Scholar
  13. Bernardello, G., Aguilar, R., & Anderson, G. (2004). The reproductive biology of Sophora fernandeziana (Fabaceae), a vulnerable endemic species from Isla Robinson Crusoe. American Journal of Botany, 91, 198-206.Google Scholar
  14. Bernardello, L., Galetto, L., & Rodriguez, I.G. (1994). Reproductive biology, variability of nectar features and pollination of Combretum fruticosum (Combretaceae) in Argentina. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 114, 293-308.Google Scholar
  15. Bieleski, R.L., & Redgwell, R.J. (1980). Sorbitol metabolism in nectaries from flowers of Rosaceae. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 7, 15-25.Google Scholar
  16. Bittencourt, N.S., & Semir, J. (2004). Pollination biology and breeding system of Zeyheria montana (Bignoniaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution, 247, 241-254.Google Scholar
  17. Bonnier, G. (1879). Les nectarires, etude critique, anatomique et physiologique. Annales des Sciences Naturelles (Botanique), 8, 5-212.Google Scholar
  18. Búrquez, A., & Corbet, S.A. (1991). Do flowers reabsorb nectar? Functional Ecology, 5, 369-379.Google Scholar
  19. Búrquez, A., & Corbet, S.A. (1998). Dynamics of production and exploitation of nectar: les-sons from Impatiens glandulifera Royle. In: B. Bahadur (Ed.), Nectary biology (pp. 130-152). Nagpur, India: Dattsons.Google Scholar
  20. Carlson, J.E., & Harms, K.E. (2006). The evolution of gender-biased nectar production in hermaphroditic plants. The Botanical Review, 72, 179-205.Google Scholar
  21. Castellanos, M.C., Wilson, P., & Thomson, J.D. (2002). Dynamic nectar replenishment in flowers of Penstemon (Scrophulariaceae). American Journal of Botany, 89, 111-118.Google Scholar
  22. Clair-Maczulajtys, D., & Bory, G. (1983). Les nectaires extrafloraux pedicelles chez l’Ailanthus glandulosa. Canadian Journal of Botany, 61, 683-691.Google Scholar
  23. Cnaani, J., Thomson, J.D., & Papaj, D.R. (2006). Flower choice and learning in foraging bumblebees: effects of variation in nectar volume and concentration. Ethology, 112, 278-285.Google Scholar
  24. Corbet, S.A. (2003). Nectar sugar content: estimating standing crop and secretion rate in the field. Apidologie, 34, 1-10.Google Scholar
  25. Corbet, S.A., Kerslake, C.J.C., Brown, D., & Morland, N.E. (1984). Can bees select nectar-rich flowers in a patch? Journal of Apicultural Research, 23, 234-242.Google Scholar
  26. Corbet, S.A., Willmer, P.G., Beament, J.W.L., Unwin, D.M., & Prys-Jones, O.E. (1979). Post-secretory determinants of sugar concentration in nectar. Plant Cell and Environment, 2, 293-308.Google Scholar
  27. Cruden, R.W., Hermann, S.M., & Peterson, S. (1983). Patterns of nectar production and plant-pollinator coevolution. In: B. Bentley & T. Elias (Eds.), The biology of nectaries (pp. 80-125). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Dag, A., & Eisikowitch, D. (2000). The effect of carbon dioxide enrichment on nectar produc-tion in melons under greenhouse conditions. Journal of Apicultural Research, 39, 88-89.Google Scholar
  29. Davis, A.R. (1997). Influence of floral visitation on nectar-sugar composition and nectary surface changes in Eucalyptus. Apidologie, 28, 27-42.Google Scholar
  30. Davis, A.R. (2003). Influence of elevated CO2 and ultraviolet-B radiation levels on floral nectar production: a nectary-morophological perspective. Plant Systemtics and Evolution, 238, 169-181.Google Scholar
  31. Davis, A.R., & Gunning, B.E.S. (1992). The modified stomata of the floral nectary of Vicia faba L. 1. Development, anatomy and ultrastructure. Protoplasma, 166, 134-152.Google Scholar
  32. Davis, A.R., Peterson, R.L., & Shuel, R.W. (1986). Anatomy and vasculature of floral nectaries of Brassica napus (Brassicaceae). Canadian Journal Botany, 64, 2508-2516.Google Scholar
  33. Davis, A.R., Peterson, R.L., & Shuel, R.W. (1988). Vasculature and ultrastructure of the flo-ral and stipular nectaries of Vicia faba (Fabaceae). Canadian Journal Botany, 66, 1435-1448.Google Scholar
  34. Davis, A.R., Pylatuik, J.D., Paradis, J.C., & Low N.H. (1998). Nectar-carbohydrate produc-tion and composition vary in relation to nectary anatomy and location within individual flowers of several species of Brassicaceae. Planta, 205, 305-318.Google Scholar
  35. Davis, A.R., & Vogel, S. (2005). Nectary structure and nectar production in relation to flow-ers symmetry and spur location in Linaria genistifolia (Scrophulariaceae). XVII International Botanical Congress (Vienna, July 17-23, 2005). Abstracts book, p. 162.Google Scholar
  36. Devlin, B., & Stephenson, A.G. (1985). Sex differential floral longevity, nectar secretion, and pollinator foraging in a protandrous species. American Journal of Botany, 72, 303-310.Google Scholar
  37. Di Sapio, O.A., Gattuso, M.A., & Prado, D.E. (2001). Structure and development of the axil-lary complex and extrafloral nectaries in Capparis retusa Griseb. Plant Biology, 3, 598-606.Google Scholar
  38. Durkee, L.T. (1982). The floral and extra-floral nectaries of Passiflora. II. The extra-floral nectary. American Journal of Botany, 69, 1420-1428.Google Scholar
  39. Eckart, V.M. (1998). Sexual dimorphism in flowers and inflorescences. In: M.A. Geber, T.E. Dawson, & L.F. Delph (Eds.), Gender and sexual dimorphism in flowering plants (pp. 123-148). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Google Scholar
  40. Elias, T.E., Rozich, W.R., & Newcombe, L. (1975). The foliar and floral nectaries of Turnera ulmifolia L. American Journal of Botany, 62, 570-576.Google Scholar
  41. Erhardt, A., Rusterholtz, H.-P., & Stöcklin, J. (2005). Elevated carbon dioxide increases nec-tar production in Epilobium angustifolium L. Oecologia, 113, 341-349.Google Scholar
  42. Faegri, K., & van der Pijl, L. (1979). The principles of pollination ecology, 3rd rev. edn. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Google Scholar
  43. Fahn, A. (1979a). Secretory tissues in plants. London: Academic Press. Google Scholar
  44. Fahn, A. (1979b). Ultrastructure of nectaries in relation to nectar secretion. American Journal of Botany, 66, 977-985.Google Scholar
  45. Fahn, A. (1987). The extrafloral nectaries of Sambucus. Annals of Botany, 60, 299-308.Google Scholar
  46. Fahn, A. (1988). Secretory tissues in vascular plants. New Phytologist, 108, 229-257.Google Scholar
  47. Fahn, A. (2000). Structure and function of secretory cells. Advances in Botanical Research, 31, 37-75.Google Scholar
  48. Fahn, A., & Shimony, C. (2001). Nectary structure and ultrastructure of unisexual flowers of Echballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich. Cucurbitaceae and their presumptive pollinators. Annals of Botany, 87, 27-33.Google Scholar
  49. Falcão, P.F., de A. Melo-de-Pinna, G.F., Leal, I.R., & Almeida-Cortez, J.S. (2003). Morphol-ogy and anatomy of extrafloral nectaries in Solanum stramonifolium (Solanaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany, 81, 859-864.Google Scholar
  50. Findlay, N., Reed, M.L., & Mercer, M.V. (1982). Nectar production in Abutilon. III. Sugar secretion. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, 24, 665-675.Google Scholar
  51. Freeman, C.E., & Head, K.C. (1990). Temperature and sucrose composition of floral nectars in Ipomopsis longiflora under field conditions. Southwestern Naturalist, 35, 423-426.Google Scholar
  52. Frey-Wyssling, A. (1955). The phloem supply to the nectaries. Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 4, 358-369.Google Scholar
  53. Gaffal, K.P., Heimler, W., & El-Gammal, S. (1998). The floral nectary of Digitalis purpurea L. structure and nectar secretion. Annals of Botany, 81, 251-262.Google Scholar
  54. Galetto, L., & Bernardello, L. (1992). Nectar secretion pattern and removal effects in six Ar-gentinean Pitcairnioideae. Botanica Acta, 105, 292-299.Google Scholar
  55. Galetto, L., & Bernardello, L. (1993). Nectar secretion pattern and removal effects in three species of Solanaceae. Canadian Journal of Botany, 71, 1394-1398.Google Scholar
  56. Galetto, L., & Bernardello, G. (1995). Characteristics of nectar secretion by Lycium cestroides, L. ciliatum (Solanaceae), and their hybrid. Plant Species Biology, 11, 157-163.Google Scholar
  57. Galetto, L., & Bernardello, G. (2004). Floral nectaries, nectar production dynamics and chemical composition in six Ipomoea species (Convolvulaceae) in relation to pollinators. Annals of Botany, 94, 269-280.Google Scholar
  58. Galetto, L., & Bernardello, G. (2005). Rewards in flowers: nectar. In: DafniA. , KevanP.G. , & HusbandB.C. (Eds.), Practical pollination biology (pp. 261-313). Cambridge, Ontario: Enviroquest. Google Scholar
  59. Galetto, L., Bernardello, G., Isele, I.C., Vesprini, J.L., Speroni, G., & Berduc, A. (2000). Re-productive biology of Erythrina crista-galli (Fabaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 87, 127-145.Google Scholar
  60. Galetto, L., Bernardello, L.M. & Juliani, H. (1990). Acerca del nectario, nectar y visitantes florales en Ligaria cuneifolia (Loranthaceae). Darwiniana, 30, 155-161.Google Scholar
  61. Galetto, L., Bernardello, L.M., & Juliani, H.R. (1994). Characteristics of secretion of nectar in Pyrostegia venusta ( Ker-Gawl.) Miers (Bignoniaceae). New Phytologist, 127, 465-471.Google Scholar
  62. Galliot, C., Stuurman, J., & Kuhlemeier, C (2006). The genetic dissection of floral pollination syndromes. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 9, 78-82.Google Scholar
  63. Gardener, M.C., & Gillman, M.P. (2001). The effect of soil fertilizer on amino acids in the floral nectar of corncockle, Agrostemma githago (Caryophyllaceae). Oikos, 92, 101-106.Google Scholar
  64. Gillespie, L.H., & Henwood, M.J. (1994). Temporal changes of floral nectar-sugar composi-tion in Polyscias sambucifolia (Sieb ex DC.) Harms (Araliaceae). Annals of Botany, 74, 227-231.Google Scholar
  65. Golubov, J., Eguiarte, L.E., Mandujano, M.C., Lopez-Portillo, J., & Montana, C. (1999). Why be a honeyless honey mesquite? Reproduction and mating system of nectarful and nectar-less individuals. American Journal of Botany, 86, 955-963.Google Scholar
  66. Gottsberger, G., Arnold, T., & Linskens, H.F. (1990). Variation in floral nectar amino acids with aging of flowers, pollen contamination, and flower damage. Israel Journal of Botany, 39, 167-176.Google Scholar
  67. Heinrich, B., & Raven, P.A. (1972). Energetics and pollination ecology. Science, 176, 597-602. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Hemborg, A.M. (1998). Seasonal dynamics in reproduction of first-year females and males in Silene dioica. Internatinal Jurnal of Plant Sciences, 159, 958-967.Google Scholar
  69. Herrera, C.M., Perez, R., & Alonso, C. (2006). Extreme intraplant variation in nectar sugar composition in an insect-pollinated perennial herb. American Journal of Botany, 93, 575-581.Google Scholar
  70. Hoch, G. (2005). Fruit-bearing branchlets are carbon autonomous in mature broad-leaved temperate forest trees. Plant, Cell and Environment, 28, 651-659.Google Scholar
  71. Hocking, B. (1968). Insect-flower association in the high Arctic with special reference to nectar. Oikos, 19, 359-388.Google Scholar
  72. Hodges, S.A. (1997). Floral nectar spurs and diversification. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 158, S81-S88.Google Scholar
  73. Horner, H.T., Healy, R.A., Cervantes-Martinez, T., & Palmer, R.G. (2003). Floral nectary fine structure and development in Glycine max L. (Fabaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences, 164, 675-690.Google Scholar
  74. Jakobsen, H.B., & Kristjansson, K. (1994). Influence of temperature and floret age on nectar secretion in Trifolium repens L. Annals of Botany, 74, 327-334.Google Scholar
  75. Kadmon, R. (1992). Dynamics of forager arrivals and nectar renewal in flowers of Anchusa strigosa. Oecologia, 92, 552-555.Google Scholar
  76. Kearns, C.A., & Inouye, D.W. (1993). Techniques for pollination biologists. Niwot, Colo-rado: University Press of Colorado. Google Scholar
  77. Kevan, P.G., Eisikowitch, D., & Rathwell, B. (1989). The role of nectar in the germination of pollen in Asclepias syriaca L. Botanical Gazette, 150, 266-270.Google Scholar
  78. Klinkhamer, P.G.L., & de Jong, T.J. (1990). Effect of plant size, plant density and sex differ-ential nectar reward on pollinator visitation in the protandrous Echium vulgare (Boraginaceae). Oikos, 57, 399-405.Google Scholar
  79. Koopowitz, H., & Marchant, T.A. (1998). Postpollination nectar reabsorption in the African epiphyte Aerangis verdickii (Orchidaceae). American Journal of Botany, 85, 508-512.Google Scholar
  80. Kumar, J., & Kumar Gupta, J. (1993). Nectar sugar production and honeybee foraging activ-ity in 3 species of onion (Allium species). Apidologie, 24, 391-396.Google Scholar
  81. Lake, J.C., & Hughes, L. (1999). Nectar production and floral characteristics of Tropaeolum majus L. grown in ambient and elevated carbon dioxide. Annals of Botany, 84, 535-541.Google Scholar
  82. Langenberger, M.W., & Davis, A.R. (2002). Temporal changes in floral nectar production, reabsorption, and composition associated with dichogamy in annual caraway (Carum carvi, Apiaceae). American Journal of Botany, 89, 1588-1598.Google Scholar
  83. Lanza, J., Smith, G.C., Sack, S., & Cash, A. (1995). Variation in nectar volume and compo-sition of Impatiens capensis at individual, plant and population levels. Oecologia, 102, 113-119.Google Scholar
  84. Leiss, K.A., & Klinkhamer, P.G.L. (2005a). Spatial distribution of nectar production in a natural Echium vulgare population: implications for pollinator behaviour. Basic and Ap-plied Ecology, 6, 317-324.Google Scholar
  85. Leiss, K.A., & Klinkhamer, P.G.L. (2005b). Genotype by environment interactions in the nectar production of Echium vulgare. Functional Ecology, 19, 454-459.Google Scholar
  86. Leiss, K.A., Vrieling, K., & Klinkhamer, P.G. (2004). Heritability of nectar production in Echium vulgare. Heredity, 92, 446-451.Google Scholar
  87. Luyt, R., & Johnson, S.D. (2002). Postpollination nectar reabsorption and its implications for fruit quality in an epiphytic orchid. Biotropica, 34, 442-446.Google Scholar
  88. Masierowska, M.L., & Stpiczyńska, M. (2005). Nectar resorption in flowers of Sinapis alba L., Brassicaceae and Platanthera chlorantha Custer (Rchb.), Orchidaceae. Abstract PO383. XVII International Botanical Congress, Vienna, Austria, p. 301.Google Scholar
  89. Matile, P. (1956). Über den Stoffwechsel und die Auxinabhängigkeit der Nektar-sekretion. Berichte der Schweirzerischen Botanischen Gesellshaft, 66, 237-266.Google Scholar
  90. Mitchell, R.J. (2004). Heritability of nectar traits: why we know so little? Ecology, 85, 1527-1533.Google Scholar
  91. Narbona, E., Ortiz, P.L., & Arista, M. (2005). Dichogamy and sexual dimorphism in floral traits in the andromonoecious Euphorbia boetica. Annals of Botany, 95, 779-787.Google Scholar
  92. Navarro, L. (2001). Reproductive biology and effect of nectar robbing on fruit production in Macleania bullata (Ericaceae). Plant Ecology, 152, 59-65.Google Scholar
  93. Neiland, M.R.M., & Wilcock, C.C. (1995). Maximisation of reproductive success by Euro-pean Orchidaceae under conditions of infrequent pollination. Protoplasma, 187, 39-48.Google Scholar
  94. Nepi, M. (2007). Nectary structure and ultrastructure. In: S.W. Nicolson, M. Nepi, & E. Pacini (Eds.), Nectaries and nectar (pp. 129-166). Dordrecht: Springer. Google Scholar
  95. Nepi, M., Ciampolini, F., & Pacini, E. (1996a). Development and ultrastructure of Cucurbita pepo nectaries of male flowers. Annals of Botany, 81, 251-262.Google Scholar
  96. Nepi, M., Guarnieri, M., & Pacini, E. (2001). Nectar secretion, reabsorption, and sugar com-position in male and female flowers of Cucurbita pepo. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 162, 353-358.Google Scholar
  97. Nepi, M., Pacini, E., Nencini, C., Collavoli, E., & Franchi, G.G. (2003). Variability of nectar production and composition in Linaria vulgaris (L.) Mill. (Scrophulariaceae). Plant Sys-tematics and Evolution, 238, 109-118.Google Scholar
  98. Nepi, M., Pacini, E., & Willemse, M.T.M. (1996b). Nectar biology of Cucurbita pepo: eco-physiological aspects. Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 45, 41-54.Google Scholar
  99. Nepi, M., Human, H., Nicolson, S.W., Cresti, L., & Pacini, E. (2006). Nectary structure and nectar presentation in Aloe castanea and A. greatheadii var davyana (Asphodelaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution, 247, 45-55.Google Scholar
  100. Nepi, M., & Stpiczyńska, M. (2007). Nectar resorption and translocation in Cucurbita pepo L. and Platanthera chlorantha Custer (Rchb.). Plant Biology, 9, 93-100.Google Scholar
  101. Nichol, P., & Hall, J.L. (1988). Characteristics of nectar secretion by extrafloral nectaries of Ricinus communis. Journal of Experimental Botany, 39, 573-586.Google Scholar
  102. Nicolson, S.W. (2007). Nectar consumers. In: S.W. Nicolson, M. Nepi, & E. Pacini (Eds.), Nectaries and nectar (pp. 289-342). Dordrecht: Springer. Google Scholar
  103. Nicolson, S.W. (1994). Eucalyptus nectar: production, variability, composition and osmotic consequences for the larva of the eucalypt nectar fly, Drosophila flavohirta. South African Journal of Science, 90, 75-80.Google Scholar
  104. Nicolson, S.W. (1995). Direct demonstration of nectar reabsorption in the flowers of Grevil-lea robusta. Functional Ecology, 9, 584-588.Google Scholar
  105. Nicolson, S.W., & Nepi, M. (2005). Dilute nectar in dry atmosphere: nectar secretion patterns in Aloe castanea (Asphodelaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences, 166, 227-233.Google Scholar
  106. O’Brien, S.P., Loveys, B.R., & Grant, W.J.R. (1996). Ultrastructure and function of floral nectaries of Chamelaucium unicinatum (Myrtaceae). Annals of Botany, 78, 189-196.Google Scholar
  107. Ornelas, J., Gonzalez, C., Jimenez, L., Lara, C., & Martinez, A. (2004). Reproductive ecology of distylous Palicourea padifolia (Rubiaceae) in a tropical montane cloud forest. II. At-tracting and rewarding mutualistic and antagonistic visitors. American Journal of Botany, 91, 1061-1069.Google Scholar
  108. Pacini, E., Nepi, M., & Vesprini, J.L. (2003). Nectary biodiversity: a short review. Plant Sys-tematics and Evolution, 238, 7-21.Google Scholar
  109. Pate, J.S., Peoples, M.B., Storer, P.J., & Atkins, C.A. (1985). The extrafloral nectaries of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) II. nectar composition, origin of solutes, and nec-tary functioning. Planta, 166, 28-38.Google Scholar
  110. Pedersen, M.W., LeFevre, C.W., & Wiebe, H.H. (1958). Absorption of C14 labeled sucrose by alfalfa nectaries. Science, 127, 758-759.Google Scholar
  111. Peng, Y.-B., Li, Y.-Q., Hao, Y.-J., Xu, Z.-H., & Bai, S.-N. (2004). Nectar production and trasportation in the nectaries of the female Cucumis sativus L. flower during anthesis. Pro-toplasma, 224, 71-78.Google Scholar
  112. Petanidou, T. (2007). Ecological and evolutionary aspects of floral nectars in Mediterranean habitats. In: S.W. Nicolson, M. Nepi, & E. Pacini (Eds.), Nectaries and nectar (pp. 343-375). Dordrecht: Springer. Google Scholar
  113. Petanidou, T., & Smets, E. (1996). Does temperature stress induce nectar secretion in Medi-terranean plants? New Phytologist, 133, 513-518.Google Scholar
  114. Petanidou, T., van Laere, A.J., & Smets, E. (1996). Change in floral nectar components from fresh to senescent flowers of Capparis spinosa (Capparidaceae), a nocturnally flowering Mediterranean shrub. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 199, 79-92.Google Scholar
  115. Pleasants, J.M. (1983). Nectar production patterns in Ipomopsis aggregata (Polemoniaceae). American Journal of Botany, 70, 1468-1475.Google Scholar
  116. Pleasants, J.M., & Chaplin, S.J. (1983). Nectar production rates of Asclepias quadrifolia: causes and consequences of individual variation. Oecologia, 59, 232-238.Google Scholar
  117. Potts, S.G., Vulliamy, B., Roberts, S., O’Toole, C., Dafni, A., Ne’eman, G., & Willmer, P.G.(2004).  Nectar resource diversity organises flower-visitor community structure. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 113, 103-107.Google Scholar
  118. Pyke, G.H. (1991). What does it cost a plant to produce floral nectar? Nature, 350, 58-59.Google Scholar
  119. Radice, S., & Galati, B.G. (2003). Floral nectary ultrastructure of Prunus persica (L.) Batch cv. Forastero (Newcomer), an Argentine peach. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 238, 23-32.Google Scholar
  120. Razem, F.A., & Davis, A.R. (1999). Anatomical and ultrastructural changes of floral nectary of Pisum sativum L. during flower development. Protoplasma, 206, 57-72.Google Scholar
  121. Rivera, G.L., Galetto, L., & Bernardello, L. (1996). Nectar secretion pattern, removal effect, and breeding system of Ligaria cuneifolia (Loranthaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany, 74, 1996-2001. Google Scholar
  122. Robards, A.W., & Stark, M. (1988). Nectar secretion in Abutilon: a new model. Protoplasma, 142, 79-91.Google Scholar
  123. Sawidis, T., Eleftheriou, E.P., & Tsekos, I. (1987a). The floral nectaries of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis I. Development of the secretory hairs. Annals of Botany, 59, 643-652.Google Scholar
  124. Sawidis, T., Eleftheriou, E.P., & Tsekos, I. (1987b). The floral nectaries of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. II. Plasmodesmatal frequencies. Phyton, 27, 155-164.Google Scholar
  125. Schlindwein, C., & Medeiros, P.C.R. (2006). Pollination in Turnera subulata (Turneraceae): unilateral reproductive dependence of the narrowly oligolectic bee Protomeliturga turnerae (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae). Flora, 201, 178-188.Google Scholar
  126. Schnepf, E., & Pross, E. (1976). Differentiation and redifferentiation of a transfer cell: devel-opment of septal nectaries of Aloe and Gasteria. Protoplasma, 89, 105-115.Google Scholar
  127. Shmida, A., & Kadmon, R. (1991). Within-plant patchiness in nectar standing crop in An-chusa strigosa. Vegetatio, 94, 95-99.Google Scholar
  128. Shuel, R.W. (1955). Nectar secretion in relation to nitrogen supply, nutritional status, and growth of the plant. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Science, 35, 124-138.Google Scholar
  129. Shuel, R.W. (1961). Influence of reproductive organs on secretion of sugars in flowers of Streptosolen jamesonii, Miers. Plant Physiology, 36, 265-271.Google Scholar
  130. Shykoff, J.A. (1997). Sex differences in floral nectar production by Silene latifolia (Caryo-phyllaceae), with reference to susceptibility to pollinator-borne fungal desease. Canadian Journal of Botany, 75, 1407-1414.Google Scholar
  131. Southwick, E.E. (1984). Photosynthate allocation to floral nectar: a neglected energy invest-ment. Ecology, 65, 1775-1779.Google Scholar
  132. Stpiczyńska, M. (1995). The structure of floral nectaries of some species of Vicia L. (Papil-ionaceae). Acta Scietas Botanicorum Poloniae, 64, 327-334.Google Scholar
  133. Stpiczyńska, M. (2003a). Nectar resorption in the spur of Platanthera chlorantha Custer (Rchb.) Orchidaceae—structural and microautoradiographic study. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 238, 119-126.Google Scholar
  134. Stpiczyńska, M. (2003b). Incorporation of [3H]sucrose after the resorption of nectar from the spur of Platanthera chlorantha (Custer) Rchb. Canadian Journal of Botany, 81, 927-932.Google Scholar
  135. Stpiczyńska, M. (2003c) Floral longevity and nectar secretion in Platanthera chlorantha (Custer) Richb. Annals of Botany, 92, 191-197.Google Scholar
  136. Stpiczyńska, M., Davies, K.L., & Gregg, A. (2005a). Comparative account of nectary structure in Hexisea imbricata (Lindl.) Rchb.f. (Orchidaceae). Annals of Botany, 95, 749-756.Google Scholar
  137. Stpiczyńska, M., Davies, K.L., & Gregg, A. (2003). Nectary structure and nectar secretion in Maxillaria coccinea (Jacq.) L.O. Williams ex Hodge (Orchidaceae). Annals of Botany, 93, 87-95.Google Scholar
  138. Stpiczyńska, M., & Matusiewicz, J. (2001). Anatomy and ultrastructure of spur nectary of Gymanadenia conopsea (L.) Orchidaceae. Acta Scietas Botanicorum Poloniae, 70, 267-272.Google Scholar
  139. Stpiczyńska, M., Milanesi, C., Faleri, C., & Cresti, M. (2005b). Ultrastructure of the nectary spur of Platanthera chlorantha (Custer) Rchb. (Orchidaceae) during successive stages of nectar secretion. Acta Biologica Cracoviensia, 47, 111-119.Google Scholar
  140. Torres, C., & Galetto, L. (1998). Patterns and implications of floral nectar secretion, chemical composition, removal effects and standing crop in Mandevilla pentlandiana (Apocyna-ceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 127, 207-223.Google Scholar
  141. Valiente-Banuet, A., Molina-Freaner, F., Torres, A., Arizmendi, M., & Casas, A. (2004). Geographic differentiation in the pollination system of the columnar cactus Pachycereus pecten - aboriginum. American Journal of Botany, 91, 850-855.Google Scholar
  142. Vesprini, J.L., & Galetto, L. (2000). The reproductive biology of Jaborosa integrifolia (So-lanaceae): why its fruits are so rare? Plant Systematics and Evolution, 225, 15-28.Google Scholar
  143. Vesprini, J.L., Nepi, M., & Pacini, E. (1999). Nectary structure, nectar secretion patterns and nectar composition in two Helleborus species. Plant Biology, 1, 560-568.Google Scholar
  144. Vezza, M., Nepi, M., Guarnieri, M., Artese, D., Rascio N., & Pacini E. (2006). Ivy (Hedera helix L.) flower nectar and nectary ecophysiology. International Journal Plant Science, 167, 519-527.Google Scholar
  145. Vogel, S. (1998). Remarkable nectaries: structure, ecology, organophyletic perspectives III. Nectar ducts. Flora, 193, 113-131.Google Scholar
  146. Wardlaw, I.F. (1990). The control of carbon partitioning in plants. New Physiologist, 116, 341-381.Google Scholar
  147. Wergin, W.P., Elmore, C.D., Hanny, B.W., & Ingber, B.F. (1975). Ultrastructure of the sub-glandular cells from the foliar nectaries of cotton in relation to the distribution of plamodesmata and the symplastic transport of nectar. American Journal of Botany, 62, 842-849.Google Scholar
  148. Willmer, P.G. (1980). The effects of insect visitors on nectar constituents in temperate plants. Oecologia, 47, 270-277.Google Scholar
  149. Wist, T.J., & Davis, A.R. (2006). Floral nectar production and nectary anatomy and ultra-structure of Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae). Annals of Botany, 97, 177-193.Google Scholar
  150. Witt, T., Jurgens, A., Geyer, R., & Gottsberger, G. (1999). Nectar dynamics and sugar com-position in flowers of Silene and Saponaria species (Caryophyllaceae). Plant Biology, 1, 334-345.Google Scholar
  151. Wyatt, R., & Shannon, T.R. (1986). Nectar production and pollination of Asclepias exaltata. Systematic Botany, 11, 326-334.Google Scholar
  152. Wyatt, R., Broyles, S.B., & Derda, G.S. (1992). Environmental influences on nectar produc-tion in milkweeds (Asclepias syriaca and A. exaltata). American Journal of Botany, 79, 6363-642.Google Scholar
  153. Zhu, J., & Hu, Z.H. (2002). Cytological studies on the development of sieve element and floral nectary tissue in Arabidopsis thaliana. Acta Botanica Sinica, 44, 9-14.Google Scholar
  154. Zhu, J., Hu, Z.H., & Müller, M. (1997). Ultrastructure of the floral nectary of Arabidopsis thaliana L. prepared from high pressure freezing and freeze substitution. Acta Botanica Sinica, 39, 289-295.Google Scholar
  155. Zimmerman, M. (1990). Nectar production, flowering phenology, and strategies for pollina-tion. In: J. Lovett Doust, & L. Lovett Doust (Eds.), Plant reproductive ecology: patterns and strategies (pp. 157-178). New York: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ettore Pacini
    • 1
  • Massimo Nepi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesUniversity of SienaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Environmental SciencesUniversity of SienaItaly

Personalised recommendations