In looking at gender differences in educational outcomes, it is important to distinguish between three sets of outcomes: (i) educational participation and attainment, that is, how far young women and men go within the educational system; (ii) educational achievement, that is, how well young men and women perform (for example, in terms of grades) at a given level of the educational system; and (iii) field of study, that is, the type of course taken within the educational system.


Gender Difference Educational System Female Student Educational Outcome Classroom Interaction 
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© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emer Smyth
    • 1
  1. 1.Economic and Social Research InstituteDublinIreland

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