Advertisement

DISPERSION MODELLING OF ATMOSPHERIC CONTAMINANTS RESULTING FROM TERRORIST ATTACKS AND ACCIDENTAL RELEASES IN URBAN AREAS

Conference paper
  • 1.4k Downloads
Part of the NATO Security Through Science Series book series

Abstract

After the September 11th, 2001, it has become clear that a new type of event can also trigger the need for rapid response and exposure, environmental and human health impact analysis. The use of specific numerical tools, such as computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models, combined with exposure studies can contribute to the simulation of the effect of a terrorist attack on local air quality and on human health, in an urban area. The main objective of this study is the development of an exposure module to chemical agents and its integration in the CFD model VADIS, in order to estimate the cumulative exposure and the number of persons exposed above specific limit values of Sulphur Mustard HD agent. The improved numerical model was applied to a selected case study in the Lisbon urban area, in order to determine the effects on the population, as a result of a terrorist attack scenario with chemical agent Sulphur Mustard HD. The number of inhabitants exposed to HD agent concentrations above 100 mg.min.m-3, capable of causing the first noticeable effects, above the medium incapacitating dosage (ICt50) of

Keywords

Computational Fluid Dynamic Terrorist Attack Cumulative Exposure Computational Fluid Dynamic Model Sulphur Mustard 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Borrego, C., Tchepel, O., Costa, A.M., Martins, H., and Ferreira, J., 2004a, Urban population exposure to particulate air pollution induced by road transport, in: 27th Int. Tech. Meeting of NATO-CCMS on “Air Pollution Modelling and its Application”, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 25–29 October 2004 – Air Pollution Modelling and its Application XVI, Carlos Borrego and Ann-Lise Norman, eds., Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, in press.Google Scholar
  2. Borrego, C., Tchepel, O., Costa, A.M., Amorim, J.H., and Miranda, A.I., 2003, Emission and dispersion modelling of Lisbon air quality at local scale. Atmospheric Environment 37: 5197–5205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borrego, C., Tchepel, O., Salmim, L, Amorim, J.H., Costa, A.M., and Janko, J., 2004b, Integrated modelling of road traffic emissions: application to Lisbon air quality management, Cybern. and Syst.: An Int. Journal 35:535–548.Google Scholar
  4. FCT/UNL, 2005, Plans and Programs for the Improvement of Air Quality in the Lisbon and Tagus Valley Region, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, p. 233.Google Scholar
  5. Huber, A., Georgopoulos, P., and Gilliam, R., 2004, Modeling Air Pollution from the Collapse of the World Trade Center and Assessing the Potential Impacts on Human Exposures. EM – Homeland Security, February 2004, pp. 35–40.Google Scholar
  6. Jensen S., 1999, A Geographic Approach to Modelling Human Exposure to Traffic Air Pollution using GIS, PhD Thesis, Ministry of Environment and Energy, National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark.Google Scholar
  7. Kadlec, R. et al., 1997, Biological weapons control: prospects and implications for the future. Journal of American Medical Association 281(5):351–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kousa, A., Kukkonen, J., Karppinen, A., Aarnio, P., and Koskentalo, T., 2002, A model for evaluating the population exposure to ambient air pollution in an urban area, Atmospheric Environment, 36:2109–2119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Raber, E., Jin, A., Noonan, K., Mcguire, R., and Kirvel, R., 2001, Int. Journal of Environmental Health Research, 11:128–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Shea, D., and Gottron, F., 2004, Small-scale Terrorist Attacks Using Chemical and Biological Agents: An Assessment Framework and Preliminary Comparisons, Congressional Research Service Report for Congress. The Library of Congress. RL32391.Google Scholar
  11. URL1: http://www.ghasp.org/ (Galveston-Houston Association for Smog Prevention)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CESAM, Department of Environment and PlanningUniversity of AveiroAveiro(Portugal)

Personalised recommendations