Gran Dolina-TD6 and Sima de los Huesos dental samples: Preliminary approach to some dental characters of interest for phylogenetic studies

  • M. Martinón-Torres
  • J.M. Bermúdez de Castro
  • A. Gómez-Robles
  • M. Bastir
  • S. Sarmiento
  • A. Muela
  • J.L. Arsuaga

Abstract

The Sima de los Huesos (SH) and Gran Dolina-TD6 sites in Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain) have each yielded an impressive fossil hominin sample representing Middle Pleistocene and Late Lower Pleistocene European populations, respectively. Paleontological evidence, paleomagnetic analyses, and radiometric dates (U/Th) suggest an interval of 400 to 500 ky for the SH hominins. At Gran Dolina, radiometric dates (ESR and U-series) combined with paleomagnetic analyses and fossil evidence indicate an age range between 780 and 860 ky for the Aurora Stratum of the TD6 level where the fossil hominins were found. We have assigned the SH hominins to the Homo heidelbergensis species, whereas the TD6 hominins are representative of Homo antecessor, the species named in 1997 (Bermùdez de Castro et al., 1997) to accommodate the variability observed in the TD6 fossil human assemblage. Dental collections of the SH and TD6 sites include more than five hundred deciduous and permanent teeth. The detailed description and morphological comparison of the Atapuerca dental samples will be published elsewhere in a near future, but the examination of an extensive human fossil record, has already revealed some dental characters we consider crucial for phylogenetic studies. We describe those characters and provide an overview of their distribution across the hominin fossil dental record. On the basis of these traits we explore some questions about the phylogenetic relationship between TD6 and SH hominins as well as the evolutionary scenario of these two populations.

Keywords

Atapuerca Homo antecessor Homo heidelbergensis Pleistocene Europe teeth 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arsuaga J.L., Bermùdez de Castro J.M., Carbonell E., 1997a. The Sima de los Huesos Hominid Site. Journal of Humasn Evolution Special Issue, 33.Google Scholar
  2. Arsuaga, J.L., Martìnez, I., Gracia, A., Carretero, J.M., Carbonell, E.,1993. Three new human skulls from the Sima de los Huesos site in Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. Nature 362, 534–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arsuaga, J.L., Martìnez, I., Gracia, A., Lorenzo, C., 1997b. The Sima de los Huesos crania (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). A comparative study. Journal of Human Evolution 33, 219–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arsuaga, J.L., Martìnez, I., Lorenzo, C., Gracia, A., Muñoz, A., Alonso, O, Gallego, J.,1999. The human cranial remains from Gran Dolina Lower Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). Journal of Human Evolution 37, 431–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bailey, S.E., 2002a. A closer look at Neanderthal postcanine dental morphology: the mandibular dentition. Anatomical Record (New Anat.) 269, 148–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bailey, S.E.,2002b. Neandertal dental morphology: implications for modern human origins. Ph.D. Dissertation, Arizona State University, Tempe.Google Scholar
  7. Bailey, S.E.,2004. A morphometric analysis of maxillary molar crowns of Middle-late Pleistocene hominins. Journal of Human Evolution 47, 183–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bailey, S.E., Lynch, J.M.,2005. Diagnostic differences in mandibular P4 shape between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 126(3), 268–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bath-Balogh, M., Selma, K.,1997. Illustrated Dental Embriology, Histology and Anatomy. Elsevier Science Health Science.Google Scholar
  10. Bermùdez de Castro, J.M.,1987. Morfologìa comparada de los dientes humanos fósiles de Ibeas (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos). Estudios geologia 43, 309–333.Google Scholar
  11. Bermùdez de Castro, J.M.,1988. Dental remains from Atapuerca/Ibeas (Spain) II. Morphology. Journal of Human Evolution 17, 279–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bermùdez de Castro, J. M.,1993. The Atapuerca dental remains: new evidence (1987–1991 excavations) and interpretations. Journal of Human Evolution 24, 339–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bermùdez de Castro, J.M., Arsuaga, J.L., Carbonell, E., Rosas, A., Martìnez, I., Mosquera, M.,1997. A hominid from the Lower Pleistocene of Atapuerca, Spain: possible ancestor to Neandertals and modern humans. Science 276, 1392–1395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bermùdez de Castro, J.M., Carbonell, E., Arsuaga, J.L.,1999a. Gran Dolina Site: TD6 Aurora Stratum (Burgos, Spain). Journal of Human Evolution, Special Issue, 37.Google Scholar
  15. Bermùdez de Castro, J.M., Martinón-Torres, M., Carbonell, E., Lozano, M., Gómez, A., Sarmiento, S.,2005. Origen y filogenia de los primeros homìnidos de Europa. Munibe (Antropologìa-Arkeologia) 57/3, 279–287. Homenaje al Prof. Jesùs Altuna.Google Scholar
  16. Bermùdez de Castro, J.M., Martinón-Torres, M., Lozano, M., Sarmiento, S.,2004a. Palaeodemography of the Atapuerca-SH hominin sample: a revision and new approaches to the palaeodemography of the European Middle Pleistocene Population. Journal of Anthropological Research 60, 5–26.Google Scholar
  17. Bermùdez de Castro, J.M., Martinón-Torres, M., Carbonell, E., Sarmiento, S., Rosas, A., Lozano, M.,2004b. The Atapuerca sites and their contribution to the knowledge of human evolution in Europe. Evolutionary Anthropology 13, 25–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bermùdez de Castro, J.M., Martinón-Torres, M., Sarmiento, S., Lozano, M.,2003. Gran Dolina-TD6 versus Sima de los Huesos dental samples from Atapuerca: evidence of discontinuity in the European Pleistocene population? Journal of Archaeological Science 30, 1421–1428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bermùdez de Castro, J.M., Nicolàs, M.E.,1995. Posterior dental size reduction in hominids: the Atapuerca Evidence. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 96, 335–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bermùdez de Castro, J.M, Rosas, A., Nicolàs, M.E.,1999b. Dental remains from Atapuerca-TD6 (Gran Dolina site, Burgos, Spain). Journal of Human Evolution 37, 523–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Biggerstaff, R.H.,1969. The basal area of posterior tooth crown components: the assessment of within tooth variation of premolars and molars. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 31, 163–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bischoff, J.L., Shampa, D.D., Aramburu, A., Arsuaga, J.L., Carbonell, E., Bermùdez de Castro, J.M.,2003. The Sima de los Huesos hominids date to beyond U/Th equilibrium (>350 kyrs) and perhaps to 400–600 kyrs: new radiometric dates. Journal of Archaeological Science 30, 275–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Carbonell, E., Bermùdez de Castro, J.M., Arsuaga, J.L., Allué, E., Bastir, M., Benito, A., Càceres, I., Canals, T., Dìez, J.C., van der Made, J., Mosquera, M., Ollé, A., Pérez-Gonzàlez, A., Rodrìguez, J., Rodrìguez, X.P., Rosas, A., Rosell, J., Sala, R., Vallverdù, J., Vergés, J.M.,2005a. An Early Pleistocene hominin mandible from Atapuerca-TD6, Spain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 102, 5674–5678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carbonell, E., Bermùdez de Castro, J.M., Arsuaga, J.L., Dìez, J.C., Rosas, A., Cuenca-Bescós G., Sala, R., Mosquera, M., Rodrìguez, X.P.,1995. Lower Pleistocene hominids and artifacts from Atapuerca-TD6 (Spain). Science 269, 826–830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carbonell, E., Mosquera, M., Rodrìguez, X.P., Sala, R., Ollé, A., Vergés, J.M., Martìnez-Navarro, B., van der Made, J., Bermúdez de Castro, J.M.,2005b. Hominid dispersals: The Out of Africa Technological Hypothesis. Human Nature, submitted.Google Scholar
  26. Carbonell, E., Mosquera, M., Rodrìguez, X.P., Sala, R., van der Made, J.,1999. Out of Africa: the dispersal of the earliest technical systems reconsidered. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 18, 119–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carbonell, E., Rodrìguez, X.P.,1994. Early Middle Pleistocene deposits and artefacts in the Gran Dolina site (TD4) of the ‘‘Sierra de Atapuerca’’ (Burgos, Spain). Journal of Human Evolution 26, 292–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Carbonell, E., Sala, R.,1993. Cadena opertiva i ‘‘transfer’’ en els objectes d’ùs humá i llur context. Empùries 48–50(I), 176–183.Google Scholar
  29. Crummett T.,1994. The evolution of shovel shaping: Regional and temporal variation in human incisor morphology. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  30. Dahlberg, A.A.,1956. Materials for the Establishment of Standards for Classification of Tooth Characteristics. Zoller Laboratory of Dental Anthropology, University of Chicago, Chicago.Google Scholar
  31. Falguéres, C., Bahain, J-J., Yokoyama, Y., Arsuaga, J.L., Bermùdez de Castro, J.M., Carbonell, E., Bischoff, J.L., Dolo, J-M.,1999. Earliest humans in Europe: the age of TD6 Gran Dolina, Atapuerca, Spain. Journal of Human Evolution 37, 343–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gagnepain, J., Hedley, I., Bahain, J.-J., Wagner, J.-J.,2000. Ètude magnétostratigraphique du site de Ca’Belvedere di Monte Poggiolo (Forli, Italie), et de son contexte stratigraphique. Prémiers ŕsultats. In: Pretto, C. (Ed.), I Primi Abitanti della Valle Padana: Monte Poggiolo Nel Quadro delle Conoscenze Europee. Jaka Book, Milan, pp. 319–335.Google Scholar
  33. Geneste, J.M.,1985. Analyse lithique d’industries Mousteriennes du Périgord: Une approche technologique du comportament des Groupes Humaines au Paleolithique Moyen. Ph.D. dissertaion. University of Bourdeaux.Google Scholar
  34. Geneste, J.M.,1991. L’Approvisionnement en matiéres premiéres dans les systemes de production lithique: la dimension spatiale de la technologie · Tecnologìa y Cadenas Operativas Lìticas. Treballs d’Arqueologìa 1, 1–36.Google Scholar
  35. Genet-Varcin, E.,1962. Évolution de la couronne de la seconde prémolaire inférieure chez les hominidès. Annals Paléo (Vert) XLVIII, 59–81.Google Scholar
  36. Gómez-Robles, A., Martinón-Torres, M., Bermùdez de Castro, J.M., Margvelashvili, A., Bastir, M., Arsuaga, J.L., Pérez-Pérez, A., Estebaranz, F., Martìnez, L. A geometric morphometric anàlisis of hominin upper first molar shape. Journal of Human Evolution (in press).Google Scholar
  37. Hrdlička, A.,1920. Shovel-shaped teeth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 3, 429–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hublin, J.-J.,2001. Northwestern African Middle Pleistocene hominids and their bearing on the emergence of Homo sapiens. In: Barham, L., Robson-Brown, K. (Eds.), Human Roots: Africa and Asia in the Middle Pleistocene. Western Academic and Specialist Press, Bristol, pp. 99–121.Google Scholar
  39. Kaifu, Y., Aziz, F., Baba, H.,2005. Hominid mandibular remains from Sangiran: 1952–1986. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 128, 497–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Karlin, C., Boud, P., Pelegrin, J.,1991. Processus techiques et chaines opératoires. Comment les préhistoriense s’appropient un concept élaboré par les ethnologues. In: Balfet, H. (Ed.), Observer l’action techniques des chaînes opératoires, pour quoi faire?. CNRS editions, pp. 101–117.Google Scholar
  41. Ludwig, F.J.,1957. The mandibular second premolars: morphologic variation and inheritance. Journal of Dental Research 36(2), 263–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lumley, M.A.,1973. Anténéandertaliens et Néandertaliens du bassin Méditerranéen Occidental Européen. Études quaternaires 2. Université de Provence.Google Scholar
  43. Manzi, G.,2004. Human evolution at the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary. Evolutionary Anthropology 13(1), 11–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Martìnez, I., Arsuaga, J.L.,1997. The temporal bones from Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). A phylogenetic approach. Journal of Human Evolution 33, 283–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Martinón-Torres, M., Bastir, M., Bermùdez de Castro, J.M., Gómez, A., Sarmiento, S., Muela, A., Arsuaga, J.L.,2006. Hominin lower second premolars morphology: evolutionary inferences through geometric morphometric analysis. Journal of Human Evolution 50, 523–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mizoguchi, Y.,1985. Shovelling: a statistical analysis of its morphology. The University Museum, The University of Tokyo – Bulletin 26, 1–52.Google Scholar
  47. Otte, M.,1998. Industrie lithique de la Couche 5. In Recherches aux Grottes de Sclayn Vol. 2 L’Archeologie E. R. A. U. L. 79. Lieja, pp. 277–278.Google Scholar
  48. Parés, J.M., Pérez-Gonzàlez, A.,1995. Paleomagnetic age for hominid fossils at Atapuerca site, Spain. Science 269, 830–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Parés, J. M., Pérez-Gonzàlez, A., Rosas, A., Benito, A., Bermùdez de Castro, J. M., Carbonell, E. & Huguet, R.,2006. Matuyama-age lithic tools from the Sima del Elefante site, Atapuerca (northern Spain). Journal of Human Evolution 50, 163–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Patte, É.,1962. La dentition des Néanderthaliens. Masson et Cie, Éditerus, Paris, pp. 237–242.Google Scholar
  51. Peretto, C., Ferrari, M.,1995. Techno-typological consideration on the industry from Ca’Belv-edere di Monte Poggiolo (Forly, Italy), Cahier Noir 7, 3–16.Google Scholar
  52. Rightmire, G.P.,1996. The human cranium from Bodo, Ethiopia: evidence for speciation in the Middle Pleistocene? Journal of Human Evolution 31, 21–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Roebroeks, W., van Kolfschoten, T.,1994. The earliest occupation of Europe: a short chronology. Antiquity 68, 489–503.Google Scholar
  54. Rohlf, F.J., Slice, D.,1990. Extensions of the Procrustes Method for the optimal superimposition of landmarks. Systematic Zoology 39, 40–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rosas, A., Bermùdez de Castro, J.M.,1998. The Mauer mandible and the evolutionary significance of Homo heidelbergensis. Geobios 31, 687–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Schoetensack, O.1908. Der Unterkiefer des Homo heidelbergensis aus den Sanden von Mauer bel Heidelberg: ein Beitrag zur Palaöntologie des Menschen. Engelmann, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  57. Scott, G.R., Turner II, C.G.,1997. The Anthropology of Modern Human Teeth. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  58. Sperber, G.,1974.c Morphology of the check teeth of early South African hominids. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Witwatersrand.Google Scholar
  59. Stringer, C.B.,1985. Middle Pleistocene variability and the origin of Late Pleistocene humans. In: Delson, E. (Ed.), Ancestors: The Hard Evidence. Alan R Liss, New York, pp. 289–295.Google Scholar
  60. Stringer, C.,2003. Out of Ethiopia. Nature 423, 692–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Stringer, C.B., McKie, R.,1996. African Exodus. The Origin of Modern Humanity. Jonathan Cape, London.Google Scholar
  62. Swindler, D.R.,1976. Dentition of Living Primates. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  63. Tattersall, I.,1996. The Last Neanderthal. Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  64. Tixier, J., Roe, D., Turq, A., Gibert, J., Martìnez, B., Arribas, A., Gibert, L., Gaete, R., Myillo, A., Iglesias, A.,1995. Présence d’industries lithiques dans le Plésitocène inférieur de la region d’Orce (Grenade, Espagne): Quel est l’état de la question? Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences Paris 321, 71–78.Google Scholar
  65. Tobias, P.V.,1991. Olduvai Gorge. The Skulls, Endocasts and Teeth of Homo habilis. Vol 4: Parts V–IX. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  66. Turner II, C.G., Nichol, C.R., Scott, G.R.,1991. Scoring Procedures for Key Morphological Traits of the permanent dentition: The Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System. Advances in Dental Anthropology. In: Kelley, M., Larsen, C. (Eds.), Advances in Dental Anthropology. Wiley Liss, New York, pp. 13–31.Google Scholar
  67. Turq, A.,1999. Reflections on the Middle Palaeolithic or Aquitania Basin. In: Roebroeks, W., Gamble, C. (Eds.), The Middle Paleolithic Occupation of Europe, University of Leiden, Leiden, pp. 107–120.Google Scholar
  68. Turq, A., Martìnez-Navarro, B., Palmqvist, P., Arribas, J., Agusti, J., Rodrìguez Vidal, J.,1996. Le Plio-Pleistocene de la région d’Orce, Province de Granade, espagne: bilan et perspectives de reserche. Paléo 8, 161–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Uytterschaut, H.T., Wood, B.A.,1989. Dental morphology: characterization and identification of Australopithecines and Homo habilis. Hominidae. Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress of Human Paleontology. Editoriale Jaca Book, Milan, pp. 183–188.Google Scholar
  70. Wang, Q., Tobias, P.V.,2000. Review of the phylogenetic position of Chinese Homo erectus in light of midfacial morphology. Acta Anthropologica Sinica 19 (Supplement), pp. 26–36.Google Scholar
  71. Weidenreich, F.,1937. The dentition of Sinanthropus pekinensis: a comparative odontography of the Hominids. Palaeontologica Sinica. N. S. D n°1 . T, The Geological Survey of China.Google Scholar
  72. Wolpoff, M.H.,1971. Metric trends in hominid dental evolution. Case Western Reserve Universty, Studies in Anthropology 2, 1–244.Google Scholar
  73. Wood, B.A., Abbot, S.A.,1983. Analysis of the dental morphology of Plio-Pleistocene hominids. I. Mandibular molars: crown area measurements and morphological traits. Journal of Anatomy 136(1), 197–219.Google Scholar
  74. Wood, B.A., Abbott, S.A., Uytterschaut, H.,1988. Analysis of the dental morphology of Plio-Pleistocene hominids. IV. Mandibular postcanine root morphology. Journal of Anatomy 156, 107–139.Google Scholar
  75. Wood, B.A., Uytterschaut, H.,1987. Analysis of the dental morphology of Plio-Pleistocene hominins. III. Mandibular premolar crowns. Journal of Anatomy 154, 121–156.Google Scholar
  76. Woodward, A. S.1921. A new cave man from Rhodesia, South Africa. Nature 108, 371–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wu, L., Turner II, C. G.,1993. Variation in the frequency and form of the lower permanent molar middle trigonid crest. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 91, 245–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zubov, A. A.,1992a. The epicristid or middle trigonid crest defined. Dental Anthropology Newsletter 6, 9–10.Google Scholar
  79. Zubov, A. A.,1992b. Some dental traits in different evolutionary lines leading to modern man. Dental Anthropology Newsletter 6, 4–8.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Martinón-Torres
    • 1
  • J.M. Bermúdez de Castro
    • 2
  • A. Gómez-Robles
    • 1
  • M. Bastir
    • 3
    • 4
  • S. Sarmiento
    • 5
  • A. Muela
    • 5
  • J.L. Arsuaga
    • 6
  1. 1.Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre Evolución Humana (CENIEH)BurgosSpain
  2. 2.Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre Evolución Humana (CENIEH)BurgosSpain
  3. 3.Department of PalaeobiologyMuseo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales CSICMadridSpain
  4. 4.Hull York Medical SchoolThe University of YorkYorkUK
  5. 5.Fundación AtapuercaBurgosSpain
  6. 6.Centro de Evolución y Comportamiento HumanosMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations