Skip to main content

BIOTECHNOLOGY IN CROP PROTECTION: TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE INSECT CONTROL

  • Conference paper
Novel Biotechnologies for Biocontrol Agent Enhancement and Management

Part of the book series: NATO Security through Science Series ((NASTA))

Abstract

With a projected increase in world population to 10 billion over the next four decades, an immediate priority for agriculture is to achievemaximum production of food and other products in a manner that is environmentally sustainable and cost effective. Whilst insecticides are very effective in combating the immediate problem of insect attack on crops, nonspecific insecticides are harmful to beneficial organisms including predators and parasitoids of the target pest species.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 259.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 329.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 329.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. O. Olsson, The rise of Neolithic agriculture, Working Paper in Economics No 57 (2001).

    Google Scholar 

  2. J. Hill, E. Nelson, D. Tilman, S. Polasky, and D. Tiffany, Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 103(30), 11206–11210 (2006).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. S. A. Hassan, F. Bigler, H. Bogenschutz, E. Boller, J. Brun, J. N. M. Calis, J. Coremanspelseneer, C. Duso, A. Grove, U. Heimbach, N. Helyer, H. Hokkanen, G. B. Lewis, F. Mansour, L. Moreth, L. Polgar, L. Samsoepetersen, B. Sauphanor, A. Staubli, G. Sterk, A. Vainio, M. Vandeveire, G. Viggiani, and H. Vogt, Results of the 6th Joint Pesticide Testing Program of the Iobc/Wprs Working Group Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms, Entomophaga 39(1), 107–119 (1994).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. A. G. Renwick, Pesticide residue analysis and its relationship to hazard characterisation (ADI/ARfD) and intake estimations (NEDI/NESTI), Pest Manag. Sci. 58, 1073–1082 (2002).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. C. James, ISAAA Brief 34 (2005).

    Google Scholar 

  6. J. Gatehouse and A. Gatehouse, in Biological and Biotechnological Control of Insect Pests, edited by J. Reichcigl and N. Reichcigl (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1999), pp. 211–241.

    Google Scholar 

  7. R. A. de Maagd, A. Bravo, and N. Crickmore, How Bacillus thuringiensis has evolved specific toxins to colonize the insect world, Trends Genet. 17(4), 193–199 (2001).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. A. M. R. Gatehouse, N. Ferry, and R. J. M. Raemaekers, The case of the monarch butterfly: A verdict is returned, Trends Genet. 18(5), 249–251 (2002).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. S. S. Gill, E. A. Cowles and V. Francis, Identification, isolation, and cloning of a Bacillus-Thuringiensis CryIac toxin-binding protein from the midgut of the Lepidopteran insect Heliothis-Virescens, J. Biol. Chem. 270(45), 27277–27282 (1995).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. P. J. K. Knight, N. Crickmore, and D. J. Ellar, The receptor for Bacillus-Thuringiensis Cryla(C) delta-endotoxin in the brush-border membrane of the Lepidopteran Manduca-Sexta is aminopeptidase-N, Mol. Microbiol. 11(3), 429–436 (1994).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. K. Luo, S. Sangadala, L. Masson, A. Mazza, R. Brousseau, and M. J. Adang, The Heliothis virescens 170 kDa aminopeptidase functions as “receptor A” by mediating specific Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A delta-endotoxin binding and pore formation, J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 27 (8/9), 735–743 (1997).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. S. Sangadala, F. S. Walters, L. H. English, and M. J. Adang, A mixture of Manduca-Sexta aminopeptidase and phosphatase enhances Bacillus-Thuringiensis insecticidal CryIa(C) toxin binding and (Rb+-K+)-Rb-86 efflux in vitro, J. Biol. Chem. 269(13), 10088–10092 (1994).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. L. J. Gahan, F. Gould, and D. G. Heckel, Identification of a gene associated with bit resistance in Heliothis virescens, Science 293(5531), 857–860 (2001).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Y. Nagamatsu, S. Toda, T. Koike, Y. Miyoshi, S. Shigematsu, and M. Kogure, Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the Bombyx mori receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal CryIA(a) toxin, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 62(4), 727–734 (1998).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. R. K. Vadlamudi, E. Weber, I. H. Ji, T. H. Ji, and L. A. Bulla, Cloning and expression of a receptor for an insecticidal toxin of Bacillus-Thuringiensis, J. Biol. Chem. 270(10), 5490–5494 (1995).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. P. Denolf, Isolation, cloning and characterisation of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin receptors in Lepidoptera, Ph.D. thesis (University of Gent, 1996).

    Google Scholar 

  17. J. S. Griffitts, J. L. Whitacre, D. E. Stevens, and R. V. Aroian, Bt toxin resistance from loss of a putative carbohydrate-modifying enzyme, Science 293(5531), 860–864 (2001).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. M. Vaeck, A. Reynaerts, H. Hofte, S. Jansens, M. Debeuckeleer, C. Dean, M. Zabeau, M. Vanmontagu, and J. Leemans, Transgenic plants protected from insect attack, Nature 328(6125), 33–37 (1987).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. R. A. de Maagd, D. Bosch, and W. Stiekema, Bacillus thuringiensis toxin-mediated insect resistance in plants, Trends Plant Sci. 4(1), 9–13 (1999).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. M. Peferoen, in Advances in Insect Control: The Role of Transgenic Plants, edited by N. Carozzi and M. Koziel (Taylor and Francis, London, pp. 21–38 (1997).

    Google Scholar 

  21. A. M. Shelton, J. Z. Zhao, and R. T. Roush, Economic, ecological, food safety, and social consequences of the deployment of Bt transgenic plants, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 47, 845–881 (2002).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. N. Ferry, M. Edwards, J. Gatehouse, T. Capell, P. Christou, and A. Gatehouse, Transgenic plants for insect pest control: A forward looking scientific perspective, Transgenic Res. 15(1), 13–19 (2006).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. B. E. Tabashnik, F. R. Groeters, N. Finson, Y. B. Liu, M. W. Johnson, D. G. Heckel, K. Luo, and M. J. Adang, in Molecular Genetics and Evolution of Pesticide Resistance, edited by T. Brown (Oxford University Press, USA, 1996), pp. 130–140.

    Google Scholar 

  24. P. Christou, T. Capell, A. Kohli, J. A. Gatehouse, and A. M. R. Gatehouse, Recent developments and future prospects in insect pest control in transgenic crops, Trends Plant Sci. 11(6), 302–308 (2006).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. J. A. Gatehouse, Plant resistance towards insect herbivores: A dynamic interaction, New Phytol. 156(2), 145–169 (2002).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. J. Harborne, Introduction to Ecological Chemistry (Academic Press, London, 1988).

    Google Scholar 

  27. J. Gatehouse, A. Gatehouse, and D. Bown, in Recombinant Protease Inhibitors in Plants, edited by D. Michaud (Landes Bioscience, Austin, TX, 2000), pp. 9–26.

    Google Scholar 

  28. L. Jouanin, M. Bonade-Bottino, C. Girard, G. Morrot, and M. Giband, Transgenic plants for insect resistance, Plant Sci. 131(1), 1–11 (1998).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. V. A. Hilder, A. M. R. Gatehouse, S. E. Sheerman, R. F. Barker, and D. Boulter, A novel mechanism of insect resistance engineered into tobacco, Nature 330(6144), 160–163 (1987).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. A. M. R. Gatehouse, V. A. Hilder, K. S. Powell, M. Wang, G. M. Davison, L. N. Gatehouse, R. E. Down, H. S. Edmonds, D. Boulter, C. A. Newell, A. Merryweather, W. D. O. Hamilton, and J. A. Gatehouse, Insect-resistant transgenic plants–Choosing the gene to do the job, Biochem. Soc. Trans. 22(4), 944–949 (1994).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. J. Graham, R. J. McNicol, and K. Greig, Towards genetic based insect resistance in strawberry using the Cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene, Ann. Appl. Biol. 127 (1), 163–173 (1995).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. D. P. Xu, Q. Z. Xue, D. McElroy, Y. Mawal, V. A. Hilder, and R. Wu, Constitutive expression of a cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene, CpTi, in transgenic rice plants confers resistance to two major rice insect pests, Mol. Breed. 2(2), 167–173 (1996).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. R. M. Broadway, Dietary regulation of serine proteinases that are resistant to serine proteinase inhibitors, J. Insect Physiol. 43(9), 855–874 (1997).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. F. De Leo, M. Bonade-Bottino, L. R. Ceci, R. Gallerani, and L. Jouanin, Effects of a mustard trypsin inhibitor expressed in different plants on three lepidopteran pests, J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 31(6/7), 593–602 (2001).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. J. C. Leple, M. Bonadebottino, S. Augustin, G. Pilate, V. D. Letan, A. Delplanque, D. Cornu, and L. Jouanin, Toxicity to Chrysomela-Tremulae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) of transgenic poplars expressing a cysteine proteinase-inhibitor, Mol. Breed. 1(4), 319–328 (1995).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. C. Pannetier, M. Giband, P. Couzi, V. LeTan, M. Mazier, J. Tourneur, and B. Hau, Introduction of new traits into cotton through genetic engineering: Insect resistance as example, J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 96(1), 163–166 (1997).

    Google Scholar 

  37. P. E. Urwin, H. J. Atkinson, D. A. Waller, and M. J. McPherson, Engineered oryzacystatin-I expressed in transgenic hairy roots confers resistance to Globodera-Pallida, Plant J. 8(1), 121–131 (1995).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. N. S. Outchkourov, B. Rogelj, B. Strukelj, and M. A. Jongsma, Expression of sea anemone equistatin in potato. Effects of plant proteases on heterologous protein production, Plant Physiol. 133(1), 379–390 (2003).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. A. Abdeen, A. Virgos, E. Olivella, J. Villanueva, X. Aviles, R. Gabarra, and S. Prat, Multiple insect resistance in transgenic tomato plants over-expressing two families of plant proteinase inhibitors, Plant Mol. Biol. 57(2), 189–202 (2005).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. D. P. Bown, H. S. Wilkinson, and J. A. Gatehouse, Differentially regulated inhibitor-sensitive and insensitive protease genes from the phytophagous insect pest, Helicoverpa armigara, are members of complex multigene families, J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 27 (7), 625–638 (1997).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. M. A. Jongsma and C. Bolter, The adaptation of insects to plant protease inhibitors, J. Insect Physiol. 43(10), 885–895 (1997).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. S. C. Dias, O. L. Franco, C. P. Magalhaes, O. B. de Oliveira-Neto, R. A. Laumann, E. L. Z. Figueira, F. R. Melo, and M. F. Grossi-de-Sa, Molecular cloning and expression of an alpha-amylase inhibitor from rye with potential for controlling insect pests, Protein J. 24(2), 113–123 (2005).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. A. L. Marsaro, S. M. N. Lazzari, E. L. Z. Figueira, and E. Y. Hirooka, Arnylase inhibitors in corn hybrids as a resistance factor to Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Neotrop. Entomol. 34 (3), 443–450 (2005).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. H. E. Schroeder, S. Gollasch, A. Moore, L. M. Tabe, S. Craig, D. C. Hardie, M. J. Chrispeels, D. Spencer, and T. J. V. Higgins, Bean alpha-amylase inhibitor confers resistance to the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum) in transgenic peas (Pisum sativum L) (Vol 107, Pg 1233, 1995), Plant Physiol. 109(3), 1129–1129 (1995).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. R. E. Shade, H. E. Schroeder, J. J. Pueyo, L. M. Tabe, L. L. Murdock, T. J. V. Higgins, and M. J. Chrispeels, Transgenic pea-seeds expressing the alpha-amylase inhibitor of the common bean are resistant to bruchid beetles, Bio-Technology 12(8), 793–796 (1994).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. M. J. Chrispeels and N. V. Raikhel, Lectins, lectin genes, and their role in plant defense, Plant Cell 3(1), 1–9 (1991).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. W. J. Peumans and E. J. M. Vandamme, Lectins as plant defense proteins, Plant Physiol. 109(2), 347–352 (1995).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. A. Gatehouse, K. Powell, W. Peumans, E. V. Damme, and J. Gatehouse, in Lectins Biomedical Perspectives, edited by A. Pusztai and S. Bardocz (Taylor and Francis, London, 1995), pp. 35–57.

    Google Scholar 

  49. X. Foissac, N. T. Loc, P. Christou, A. M. R. Gatehouse, and J. A. Gatehouse, Resistance to green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens) and brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) in transgenic rice expressing snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA), J. Insect Physiol. 46(4), 573–583 (2000).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  50. A. M. R. Gatehouse, G. M. Davison, C. A. Newell, A. Merryweather, W. D. O. Hamilton, E. P. J. Burgess, R. J. C. Gilbert, and J. A. Gatehouse, Transgenic potato plants with enhanced resistance to the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea: Growth room trials, Mol. Breed. 3(1), 49–63 (1997).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. K. S. Powell, A. M. R. Gatehouse, V. A. Hilder, and J. A. Gatehouse, Antifeedant effects of plant-lectins and an enzyme on the adult stage of the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata-Lugens, Entomol. Exp. Appl. 75(1), 51–59 (1995).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. N. Sauvion, Y. Rahbe, W. J. Peumans, E. J. M. VanDamme, J. A. Gatehouse, and A. M. R. Gatehouse, Effects of GNA and other mannose binding lectins on development and fecundity of the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae, Entomol. Exp. Appl. 79(3), 285–293 (1996).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. K. V. Rao, K. S. Rathore, T. K. Hodges, X. Fu, E. Stoger, D. Sudhakar, S. Williams, P. Christou, M. Bharathi, D. P. Bown, K. S. Powell, J. Spence, A. M. R. Gatehouse, and J. A. Gatehouse, Expression of snowdrop lectin (GNA) in transgenic rice plants confers resistance to rice brown planthopper, Plant J. 15(4), 469–477 (1998).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. P. Tinjuangjun, N. T. Loc, A. M. R. Gatehouse, J. A. Gatehouse, and P. Christou, Enhanced insect resistance in Thai rice varieties generated by particle bombardment, Mol. Breed. 6(4), 391–399 (2000).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. S. B. Maqbool, S. Riazuddin, N. T. Loc, A. M. R. Gatehouse, J. A. Gatehouse, and P. Christou, Expression of multiple insecticidal genes confers broad resistance against a range of different rice pests, Mol. Breed. 7(1), 85–93 (2001).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. R. E. Down, A. M. R. Gatehouse, W. D. O. Hamilton, and J. A. Gatehouse, Snowdrop lectin inhibits development and decreases fecundity of the glasshouse potato aphid (Aulacorthum solani) when administered in vitro and via transgenic plants both in laboratory and glasshouse trials, J. Insect Physiol. 42(11/12), 1035–1045 (1996).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  57. E. Stoger, S. Williams, P. Christou, R. E. Down, and J. A. Gatehouse, Expression of the insecticidal lectin from snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) in transgenic wheat plants: Effects on predation by the grain aphid Sitobion avenae, Mol. Breed. 5(1), 65–73 (1999).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. K. S. Powell, J. Spence, M. Bharathi, J. A. Gatehouse, and A. M. R. Gatehouse, Immunohistochemical and developmental studies to elucidate the mechanism of action of the snowdrop lectin on the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), J. Insect Physiol. 44(7/8), 529–539 (1998).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  59. J. P. Du, X. Foissac, A. Carss, A. M. R. Gatehouse, and J. A. Gatehouse, Ferritin acts as the most abundant binding protein for snowdrop lectin in the midgut of rice brown planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens), J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 30(4), 297–305 (2000).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. L. R. Ceci, M. Volpicella, Y. Rahbe, R. Gallerani, J. Beekwilder, and M. A. Jongsma, Selection by phage display of a variant mustard trypsin inhibitor toxic against aphids, Plant J. 33(3), 557–566 (2003).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  61. N. T. Loc, P. Tinjuangjun, A. M. R. Gatehouse, P. Christou, and J. A. Gatehouse, Linear transgene constructs lacking vector backbone sequences generate transgenic rice plants which accumulate higher levels of proteins conferring insect resistance, Mol. Breed. 9(4), 231–244 (2002).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. Y. Rahbe, C. Deraison, M. Bonade-Bottino, C. Girard, C. Nardon, and L. Jouanin, Effects of the cysteine protease inhibitor oryzacystatin (OC-I) on different aphids and reduced performance of Myzus persicae on OC-I expressing transgenic oilseed rape, Plant Sci. 164(4), 441–450 (2003).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. E. P. J. Burgess, L. A. Malone, J. T. Christeller, M. T. Lester, C. Murray, B. A. Philip, M. M. Phung, and E. L. Tregidga, Avidin expressed in transgenic tobacco leaves confers resistance to two noctuid pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura, Transgenic Res. 11(2), 185–198 (2002).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  64. E. Fitches, N. Audsley, J. A. Gatehouse, and J. P. Edwards, Fusion proteins containing neuropeptides as novel insect control agents: Snowdrop lectin delivers fused allatostatin to insect haemolymph following oral ingestion, J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 32(12), 1653–1661 (2002).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. J. T. Christeller, E. P. J. Burgess, V. Mett, H. S. Gatehouse, N. P. Markwick, C. Murray, L. A. Malone, M. A. Wright, B. A. Philip, D. Watt, L. N. Gatehouse, G. L. Lovei, A. L. Shannon, M. M. Phung, L. M. Watson, and W. A. Laing, The expression of a mammalian proteinase inhibitor, bovine spleen trypsin inhibitor in tobacco and its effects on Helicoverpa armigera larvae, Transgenic Res. 11(2), 161–173 (2002).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. R. A. de Maagd, A. Bravo, C. Berry, N. Crickmore, and H. E. Schnepf, Structure, diversity, and evolution of protein toxins from spore-forming entomopathogenic bacteria, Annu. Rev. Genet. 37, 409–433 (2003).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  67. C. G. Yu, M. A. Mullins, G. W. Warren, M. G. Koziel, and J. J. Estruch, The Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3A lyses midgut epithelium cells of susceptible insects, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63(2), 532–536 (1997).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  68. A. Chattopadhyay, N. B. Bhatnagar, and R. Bhatnagar, Bacterial insecticidal toxins, Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 30(1), 33–54 (2004).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  69. D. Liu, S. Burton, T. Glancy, Z. S. Li, R. Hampton, T. Meade, and D. J. Merlo, Insect resistance conferred by 283 kDa Photorhabdus luminescens protein TcdA in Arabidopsis thaliana, Nat. Biotechnol. 21(10), 1222–1228 (2003).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  70. L. Mehlo, D. Gahakwa, P. T. Nghia, N. T. Loc, T. Capell, J. A. Gatehouse, A. M. R. Gatehouse, and P. Christou, An alternative strategy for sustainable pest resistance in genetically enhanced crops, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 102(22), 7812–7816 (2005).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  71. E. Fitches, M. G. Edwards, C. Mee, E. Grishin, A. M. R. Gatehouse, J. P. Edwards, and J. A. Gatehouse, Fusion proteins containing insect-specific toxins as pest control agents: Snowdrop lectin delivers fused insecticidal spider venom toxin to insect haemolymph following oral ingestion, J. Insect Physiol. 50(1), 61–71 (2004).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  72. I. T. Baldwin, R. Halitschke, A. Kessler, and U. Schittko, Merging molecular and ecological approaches in plant–insect interactions, Ecol. Appl. 4(4), 351–358 (2001).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  73. B. A. Bailey, M. D. Strem, H. H. Bae, G. A. de Mayolo, and M. J. Guiltinan, Gene expression in leaves of Theobroma cacao in response to mechanical wounding, ethylene, and/or methyl jasmonate, Plant Sci. 168(5), 1247–1258 (2005).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  74. D. Hermsmeier, U. Schittko, and I. T. Baldwin, Molecular interactions between the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and its natural host Nicotiana attenuata I: Large-scale changes in the accumulation of growth- and defense-related plant mRNAs, Plant Physiol. 125(2), 683–700 (2001).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. M. J. Stout, A. L. Fidantsef, S. S. Duffey, and R. M. Bostock, Signal interactions in pathogen and insect attack: Systemic plant-mediated interactions between pathogens and herbivores of the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, Plant Pathol. 54(3/4), 115–130 (1999).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  76. F. Zhang, L. Zhu, and G. C. He, Differential gene expression in response to brown planthopper feeding in rice, J. Plant Physiol. 161(1), 53–62 (2004).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  77. W. Q. Chen, N. J. Provart, J. Glazebrook, F. Katagiri, H. S. Chang, T. Eulgem, F. Mauch, S. Luan, G. Z. Zou, S. A. Whitham, P. R. Budworth, Y. Tao, Z. Y. Xie, X. Chen, S. Lam, J. A. Kreps, J. F. Harper, A. Si-Ammour, B. Mauch-Mani, M. Heinlein, K. Kobayashi, T. Hohn, J. L. Dangl, X. Wang, and T. Zhu, Expression profile matrix of Arabidopsis transcription factor genes suggests their putative functions in response to environmental stresses, Plant Cell 14(3), 559–574 (2002).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. D. D. Schmidt, C. Voelckel, M. Hartl, S. Schmidt, and I. T. Baldwin, Specificity in ecological interactions. Attack from the same lepidopteran herbivore results in species-specific transcriptional responses in two solanaceous host plants, Plant Physiol. 138(3), 1763–1773 (2005).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  79. E. Rojo, R. Solano, and J. J. Sanchez-Serrano, Interactions between signaling compounds involved in plant defense, J. Plant Growth Regul. 22(1), 82–98 (2003).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  80. R. A. Dixon, Engineering of plant natural product pathways, Ecol. Appl. 8(3), 329–336 (2005).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  81. Cropgen (2002); available at http://www.cropgen.org/.

    Google Scholar 

  82. GM Science Review (2003); available at http://www.gmsciencedebate.org.uk.

    Google Scholar 

  83. E. Abergel and K. Barrett, Putting the cart before the horse: A review of biotechnology policy in Canada, J. Can. Stud/REC 37(3), 135–161 (2002).

    Google Scholar 

  84. E. A. Clark, Environmental risks of genetic engineering, J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 148(1/2), 47–60 (2006).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  85. M. J. Crawley, S. L. Brown, R. S. Hails, D. D. Kohn, and M. Rees, Biotechnology—Transgenic crops in natural habitats, Nature 409(6821), 682–683 (2001).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  86. P. J. Dale, B. Clarke, and E. M. G. Fontes, Potential for the environmental impact of transgenic crops (Nat. Biotechnol. vol 20, p. 567, 2002), Nat. Biotechnol. 20(8), 843(2002) (erratum).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  87. J. Davison, Risk mitigation of genetically modified bacteria and plants designed for bioremediation, J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 32(11/12), 639–650 (2005).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  88. D. Lee and E. Natesan, Evaluating genetic containment strategies for transgenic plants, Trends Biotechnol. 24(3), 109–114 (2006).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  89. D. Michaud, Environmental impact of transgenic crops, I: Transgene migration, Phytoprotection 86(2), 93–105 (2005).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  90. A. A. Snow, D. A. Andow, P. Gepts, E. M. Hallerman, A. Power, J. M. Tiedje, and L. L. Wolfenbarger, Genetically engineered organisms and the environment: Current status and recommendations, Ecol. Appl. 15(2), 377–404 (2005).

    Google Scholar 

  91. A. T. Groot and M. Dicke, Insect-resistant transgenic plants in a multi-trophic context, Plant J. 31(4), 387–406 (2002).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  92. P. A. M. Hogervorst, N. Ferry, A. M. R. Gatehouse, F. L. Wackers, and J. Romeis, Direct effects of snowdrop lectin (GNA) on larvae of three aphid predators and fate of GNA after ingestion, J. Insect Physiol. 52(6), 614–624 (2006).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  93. L. B. Obrist, A. Dutton, J. Romeis, and F. Bigler, Biological activity of Cry1Ab toxin expressed by Bt maize following ingestion by herbivorous arthropods and exposure of the predator Chrysoperla carnea, Biocontrol 51(1), 31–48 (2006).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  94. T. H. Schuler, R. P. J. Potting, I. Denholm, and G. M. Poppy, Parasitoid behaviour and Bt plants, Nature 400(6747), 825–826 (1999).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  95. E. Vojtech, M. Meissle, and G. M. Poppy, Effects of Bt maize on the herbivore Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and the parasitoid Cotesta marginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Transgenic Res. 14(2), 133–144 (2005).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  96. E. B. Dogan, R. E. Berry, G. L. Reed, and P. A. Rossignol, Biological parameters of convergent lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feeding on aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) on transgenic potato, J. Econ. Entomol. 89(5), 1105–1108 (1996).

    Google Scholar 

  97. R. E. Down, L. Ford, S. J. Bedford, L. N. Gatehouse, C. Newell, J. A. Gatehouse, and A. M. R. Gatehouse, Influence of plant development and environment on transgene expression in potato and consequences for insect resistance, Transgenic Res. 10(3), 223–236 (2001).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  98. G. Head, C. R. Brown, M. E. Groth, and J. J. Duan, Cry1Ab protein levels in phytophagous insects feeding on transgenic corn: Implications for secondary exposure risk assessment, Entomol. Exp. Appl. 99(1), 37–45 (2001).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  99. H. A. Bell, E. C. Fitches, G. C. Marris, J. Bell, J. P. Edwards, J. A. Gatehouse, and A. M. R. Gatehouse, Transgenic GNA expressing potato plants augment the beneficial biocontrol of Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by the parasitoid Eulophus pennicornis (Hymenoptera: eulophidae), Transgenic Res. 10(1), 35–42 (2001).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  100. M. E. Wakefield, H. A. Bell, E. C. Fitches, J. P. Edwards, and A. M. R. Gatehouse, Effects of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) expressed in tomato leaves on larvae of the tomato moth Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and the effect of GNA on the development of the endoparasitoid Meteorus gyrator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Bull. Entomol. Res. 96(1), 43–52 (2006).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  101. H. A. Bell, R. E. Down, E. C. Fitches, J. P. Edwards, and A. M. R. Gatehouse, Impact of genetically modified potato expressing plant-derived insect resistance genes on the predatory bug Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 13(8), 729–741 (2003).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  102. R. E. Down, L. Ford, S. D. Woodhouse, G. M. Davison, M. E. N. Majerus, J. A. Gatehouse, and A. M. R. Gatehouse, Tritrophic interactions between transgenic potato expressing snowdrop lectin (GNA), an aphid pest (peach-potato aphid; Myzus persicae (Sulz.) and a beneficial predator (2-spot ladybird; Adalia bipunctata L.), Transgenic Res. 12(2), 229–241 (2003).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  103. R. E. Down, L. Ford, S. D. Woodhouse, R. J. M. Raemaekers, B. Leitch, J. A. Gatehouse, and A. M. R. Gatehouse, Snowdrop lectin (GNA) has no acute toxic effects on a beneficial insect predator, the 2-spot ladybird (Adalia bipunctata L.), J. Insect Physiol. 46(4), 379–391 (2000).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  104. N. Ferry, R. J. M. Raemaekers, M. E. N. Majerus, L. Jouanin, G. Port, J. A. Gatehouse, and A. M. R. Gatehouse, Impact of oilseed rape expressing the insecticidal cysteine protease inhibitor oryzacystatin on the beneficial predator Harmonia axyridis (multicoloured Asian ladybeetle), Mol. Ecol. 12(2), 493–504 (2003).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  105. N. Ferry, L. Jouanin, L. R. Ceci, A. Mulligan, K. Emami, J. A. Gatehouse, and A. M. R. Gatehouse, Impact of oilseed rape expressing the insecticidal serine protease inhibitor, mustard trypsin inhibitor-2 on the beneficial predator Pterostichus madidus, Mol. Ecol. 14(1), 337–349 (2005).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2007 Springer

About this paper

Cite this paper

Edwards, M.G., Gatehouse, A.M. (2007). BIOTECHNOLOGY IN CROP PROTECTION: TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE INSECT CONTROL. In: Vurro, M., Gressel, J. (eds) Novel Biotechnologies for Biocontrol Agent Enhancement and Management. NATO Security through Science Series. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-5799-1_1

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics