Advertisement

Abstract

Otoliths of fish are hard, calcified internal structures that assist in orientation and sound perception (Popper et al. 2005, Green et al., Chapter 1, this volume). As otoliths grow inside each fish’s head they record an extraordinary amount of information about the life of that fish and the environments that it experiences (Begg et al. 2005). The challenge to scientists is to retrospectively access this information, to interpret it accurately in terms of the biology and life history of the fish, and to use the data to appropriately understand and manage the natural resources of the fish population and the broader aquatic ecosystem. The greatest application of otoliths to date has been in providing information on the age and growth of fish in years, which has ultimately been used in the management of associated fisheries (Campana & Thorrold 2001, Campana 2005). Prior to the 1980s, and stretching back to the late 19th Century, most such ageing work was done in the temperate regions of the world and contributed to managing the enormous fisheries in the oceans of these regions (Beamish 1992, Beamish & McFarlane 1995).

Keywords

Reef Fish Great Barrier Reef Tropical Fish Otolith Growth Asymptotic Size 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams S, Williams AJ (2001) A preliminary test of the transitional growth spurt hypothesis using the protogynous coral trout Plectropomus maculatus. J Fish Biol 59:183–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beamish RJ (1979a) Differences in the age of Pacific Hake (Merluccius productus) using whole otoliths and sections of otoliths. J Fish Res Board Can 36:141–151Google Scholar
  3. Beamish RJ (1979b) New information on the longevity of Pacific Ocean perch (Sebastes alutus). J Fish Res Board Can 36:1395–1400Google Scholar
  4. Beamish RJ (1992) The importance of accurate ages in fisheries science. In: Hancock DA (Ed) Proceedings of the Australian Society for Fish Biology workshop on the measurement of age and growth in fish and shellfish No. 12. Bureau of Rural Resources, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, Australia pp 8–22Google Scholar
  5. Beamish RJ, Chilton DE (1982) A preliminary evaluation of a method to determine the age of sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 39:277–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beamish RJ, Fournier DA (1981) A method for comparing the precision of a set of age determinations. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 38:982–983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beamish RJ, McFarlane GA (1983) The forgotten requirement for age validation in fisheries biology. Trans Am Fish Soc 112:735–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beamish RJ, McFarlane GA (1995) A discussion of the importance of ageing errors, and an application to walleye Pollock: the world’s largest fishery. In: Secor DH, Dean JM, Campana SE (Eds) Recent developments in fish otolith research. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, pp 545–565Google Scholar
  9. Beckman DW, Wilson CA (1995) Seasonal timing of opaque zone formation in fish otoliths. In: Secor DH, Dean JM, Campana SE (Eds) Recent developments in fish otolith research. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, pp 27–43Google Scholar
  10. Begg GA, Campana SE, Fowler AJ, Suthers IM (2005) Otolith research and application: current directions in innovation and implementation. Mar Freshwater Res 56:477–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Begg GA, Sellin MJ (1998) Age and growth of school mackerel (Scomberomorus queenslandicus) and spotted mackerel (S. munroi) in Queensland east-coast waters with implications for stock structure. Mar Freshwater Res 49:109–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blaber SJM (2000) Tropical estuarine fishes. Ecology, exploitation and conservation. Blackwell Science Ltd, Carlton Victoria, AustraliaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blacker RW (1974) The ICNAF cod otolith exchange scheme. In: Bagenal TB (Ed) The ageing of fish. Unwin Brothers, Old Woking, England, pp 108–113Google Scholar
  14. Boehlert GW (1985) Using objective criteria and multiple regression models for age determination in fishes. Fish Bull 83:103–117Google Scholar
  15. Brothers EB (1987) Methodological approaches to the examination of otoliths in aging studies. In: Summerfelt RC, Hall GE (Eds) The age and growth of fish. The Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, pp 319–330Google Scholar
  16. Brothers EB, Mathews CP (1987) Application of otolith microstructural studies to age determination of some commercially valuable fish of the Arabian Gulf. Kuwait Bull Mar Sci 9:127–157Google Scholar
  17. Brown IW, Sumpton WD (1998) Age, growth and mortality of red throat emperor Lethrinus miniatus(Pisces: Lethrinidae) from the southern Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. Bull Mar Sci 62:905–917Google Scholar
  18. Buckworth RC (1998) Age structure of the commercial catch of Northern Territory narrow-barred Spanish mackerel. Final report to FRDC for project T94/015, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  19. Burton ML (2002) Age, growth and mortality of mutton snapper, Lutjanus analis, from the east coast of Florida, with a brief discussion of management implications. Fish Res 59:31–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Caldow C, Wellington GM (2003) Patterns of annual increment formation in otoliths of pomacentrids in the tropical western Atlantic: implications for population age-structure examination. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 265:185–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Campana SE (1999) Chemistry and composition of fish otoliths: pathways, mechanisms and applications. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 188:263–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Campana SE (2001) Accuracy, precision, and quality control in age determination, including a review of the use and abuse of age validation methods. J Fish Biol 59:197–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Campana SE (2005) Otolith science entering the 21st Century. Mar Freshwater Res 56:485–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Campana SE, Annand MC, McMillan JI (1995) Graphical and statistical methods for determining the consistency of age determinations. Tran Am Fish Soc 124:131–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Campana SE, Neilson JD (1985) Microstructure of fish otoliths. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 42:1014–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Campana SE, Thorrold SR (2001) Otoliths, increments, and elements: keys to a comprehensive understanding of fish populations. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 58:30–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cappo M, Eden P, Newman SJ, Robertson S (2000) A new approach to validation of periodicity and timing of opaque zone formation in the otoliths of eleven species of Lutjanusfrom the central Great Barrier Reef. Fish Bull 98:474–488Google Scholar
  28. Choat JH, Axe LM (1996) Growth and longevity in acanthurid fishes: an analysis of otolith increments. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 134:15–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Choat JH, Axe LM, Lou DC (1996) Growth and longevity in fishes of the family Scaridae. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 145:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Choat JH, Robertson DR (2002) Age-based studies. In: Sale PF (Ed) Coral reef fishes – dynamics and diversity in a complex ecosystem. Academic Press, San Diego California, pp 57–88Google Scholar
  31. Choat JH, Robertson DR, Ackerman JL, Posada JM (2003) An age-based demographic analysis of the Caribbean stoplight parrotfish Sparisoma viride. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 246:265–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Christensen JM (1964) Burning of otoliths, a technique for age determination of soles and other fish. J Cons Perm Int Explor Mer 29:73–81Google Scholar
  33. Crabtree RE, Bullock LH (1998) Age, growth, and reproduction of black grouper, Mycteroperca bonaci, in Florida waters. Fush Bull 96:735–753Google Scholar
  34. Craig PC, Choat JH, Axe LM, Saucerman S (1997) Population biology and harvest of the coral reef surgeonfish Acanthurus lineatusin American Samoa. Fish Bull 95:680–693Google Scholar
  35. De Vries DA, Grimes CB (1997) Spatial and temporal variation in age and growth of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, 1977–1992. Fish Bull 95:694–708Google Scholar
  36. Doherty PJ, Fowler AJ (1994a) An empirical test of recruitment limitation in a coral reef fish. Science 263:935–939PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Doherty PJ, Fowler AJ (1994b) Demographic consequences of variable recruitment to coral reef fish populations: a congeneric comparison of two damselfishes. Bull Mar Sci 54:297–313Google Scholar
  38. Doherty PJ, Williams DMcB (1988) The replenishment of coral reef fish populations. Ocean Mar Biol Ann Rev 26:487–551Google Scholar
  39. Eklund J, Parmanne R, Aneer G (2000) Between-reader variation in herring otolith ages and effects on estimated population parameters. Fish Res 46:147–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Faunce CH, Patterson HM, Lorenz JJ (2002) Age, growth, and mortality of the Mayan cichlid (Cichlasoma urophthalmus) from the southeast Everglades. Fish Bull 100:42–50Google Scholar
  41. Ferreira BP, Russ GR (1992) Age, growth and mortality of the inshore coral trout Plectropomus maculatus (Pisces: Serranidae) from the Central Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Aust J Mar Freshwater Res 43:1301–1312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ferreira BP, Russ GR (1994) Age validation and estimation of growth rate of the coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus, (Lacepede 1802) from Lizard Island, Northern Great Barrier Reef. Fish Bull 92:46–57Google Scholar
  43. Fletcher WJ (1991) A test of the relationship between otolith weight and age for the pilchard Sardinops neopilchardus. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 48:35–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fletcher WJ (1995) Application of otolith weight-age relationship for the pilchard, Sardinops sagax neopilchardus. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 52:657–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fowler AJ (1990) Validation of annual growth increments in the otoliths of a small coral reef fish. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 64:39–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fowler AJ (1995) Annulus formation in otoliths of coral reef fish – a review. In: Secor DH, Dean JM,Campana SE (Eds) Recent developments in fish otolith research. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, pp 45–63Google Scholar
  47. Fowler AJ, Doherty PJ (1992) Validation of annual growth increments in the otoliths of two damselfishes from the southern Great Barrier Reef. Aust J Mar Freshwater Res 43:1057–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fowler AJ, Short DA (1998) Validation of age determination from otoliths of the King George whiting Sillaginodes punctata(Perciformes). Mar Biol 130:577–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Francis RICC, Paul LJ, Mulligan KP (1992) Ageing of adult snapper (Pagrus auratus) from otolith ring counts: validation by tagging and oxytetracycline injection. Aust J Mar Freshwater Res 43:1069–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gjosaeter J, Dayaratne P, Bergstad OA, Gjosaeter H, Sousa MI, Beck IM (1984) Ageing tropical fish by growth rings in the otoliths. FAO Fish Circ 776:54Google Scholar
  51. Grandcourt EM (2002) Demographic characteristics of a selection of exploited reef fish from the Seychelles: preliminary study. Mar Freshwater Res 53:123–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gust N, Choat JH, Ackerman JL (2002) Demographic plasticity in tropical reef fishes. Mar Biol 140:1039–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hilborn R, Walters CJ (1992) Quantitative fisheries stock assessment. Choice, dynamics and uncertainty. Chapman and Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  54. Hill KT, Radtke RL (1988) Gerontological studies of the damselfish Dascyllus albisella. Bull Mar Sci 42:424–434Google Scholar
  55. Hoedt FE (2002) Growth in eight species of tropical anchovy determined from primary otolith increments. Mar Freshwater Res 53:859–867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jepsen DB, Winemiller KO, Taphorn DC, Rodriguez Olarte D (1999) Age structure and growth of peacock cichlids from rivers and reservoirs of Venezuela. J Fish Biol 55:433–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kimura DK (1977) Statistical assessment of the age-length key. J Fish Res Board Can 34:317–324Google Scholar
  58. Kimura DK, Anderl DM (2005) Quality control of age data at the Alaska Fisheries Centre. Mar Freshwater Res 56:783–789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. King M (1995) Fisheries biology, assessment and management. Blackwell Science Ltd, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  60. Kritzer JP (2002) Variation in the population biology of stripey bass Lutjanus carponotatuswithin and between two island groups on the Great Barrier Reef. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 243:191–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kritzer JP, Davies CR, Mapstone BD (2001) Characterizing fish populations: effects of sample size and population structure on the precision of demographic parameter estimates. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 58:1557–1568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lai HL, Gunderson DR (1987) Effects of ageing errors on estimates of growth, mortality and yield per recruit for walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma). Fish Res 5:287–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lewis PD, Mackie M (2002) Methods in the collection, preparation and interpretation of narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) otoliths for a study of age and growth in Western Australia. Fisheries Research Report No 143, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, 23pGoogle Scholar
  64. Longhurst AR, Pauly D (1987) Ecology of tropical oceans. Academic Press Inc, London, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  65. Lou D, Begg GA, Petursdottir G, Mapstone BD (2004) A comparative study of otolith processing for tropical and temperate marine fishes. Third International Symposium of Fish Otolith Research and Application, Townsville, QLDGoogle Scholar
  66. Lou DC, Mapstone BD, Russ GR, Davies CR, Begg GA (2005) Using otolith weight-age relationships to predict age-based metrics of coral reef fish populations at different spatial scales. Fish Res 71:279–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Loubens G (1978) Biologie de quelque especes de poisson du lagon Neo-Caledonien. I. Determination de l’age (otolithometrie). Cahiers ORSTOM, Serie Oceanographie 16:263–283Google Scholar
  68. Mackie M, Lewis PD, Gaughan DJ, Buckworth R (2003) Stock assessment of the narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) in Western Australia. Final Report to FRDC for project 1999/151, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  69. Mann-Lang JB, Buxton CD (1996) Growth characteristics in the otoliths of selected South African sparid fish. S Afr J Mar Sci 17:205–216Google Scholar
  70. Manooch CS (1987) Age and growth of snappers and groupers. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston S (Eds) Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management. Westview Press Inc, Boulder Colorado, pp 329–363Google Scholar
  71. Mapstone BD, Davies CR, Little LR, Punt AE, Smith ADM, Pantus F, Lou DC, Williams AJ, Jones A, Ayling AM, Russ GR, McDonald AD (2004) The effects of line fishing on the Great Barrier Reef and evaluations of alternative potential management strategies. CRC Reef Research Centre Technical Report No 52, CRC Reef Research Centre, Townsville, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  72. Mapstone BD, Fowler AJ (1988) Recruitment and the structure of assemblages of fish on coral reefs. Trend Ecol Evol 3:72–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Marriott R (2002) Age, growth and sex structure of red sea bass populations on the Great Barrier Reef. In: Williams AJ, Welch DJ, Muldoon G, Marriott R, Kritzer JP, Adams S (Eds) Bridging the gap: a workshop linking student research with fisheries stakeholders. CRC Reef Research Centre Technical Report No. 48, CRC Reef Research Centre, Townsville, pp 85–93Google Scholar
  74. McCurdy WJ, Panfili J, Meunier FJ, Geffen AJ, de Pontual H (2002) Preparation and observation techniques. Preparation of calcified structures. In: Panfili J, de Pontual H, Troadec H, Wright PJ (Eds) Manual of fish sclerochronology. Ifremer-IRD coedition, Brest, France, pp 331–357Google Scholar
  75. McFarlane GA, Beamish RJ (1995) Validation of the otolith cross-section method of age determination for sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) using oxytetracycline. In: Secor DH, Dean JM, Campana SE (Eds) Recent developments in fish otolith research. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, pp 319–329Google Scholar
  76. McPherson GR (1992) Age and growth of the narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson Lacepede, 1800) in north–eastern Queensland waters. Aust J Mar Freshwater Res 43:1269–1282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Meekan MG, Ackerman JL, Wellington GM (2001) Demography and age structures of coral reef damselfishes in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 212:223–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Milton DA, Blaber SJM, Rawlinson NJF (1993) Age and growth of three species of clupeids from Kiribati, tropical central south Pacific. J Fish Biol 43:89–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Morales-Nin B (1989) Growth determination of tropical marine fishes by means of otolith interpretation and length frequency analysis. Aq Living Res 2:241–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Morales-Nin B (2000) Review of the growth regulation processes of otolith daily increment formation. Fish Res 46:53–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Morales-Nin B, Panfili J (2002a) Sclerochronological studies. Age estimation. In: Panfili J, de Pontual H, Troadec H, Wright PJ (Eds) Manual of fish sclerochronology. Ifremer-IRD coedition, Brest, France, pp 91–97Google Scholar
  82. Morales-Nin B, Panfili J (2002b) Preparation and observation techniques. Observation. In: Panfili J, de Pontual H, Troadec H, Wright PJ (Eds) Manual of fish sclerochronology. Ifremer-IRD coedition, Brest, France, pp 358–369Google Scholar
  83. Morales-Nin B, Panfili J (2005) Seasonality in the deep sea and tropics revisited: what can otoliths tell us? Mar Freshwater Res 56:585–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Morales-Nin B, Ralston S (1990) Age and growth of Lutjanus kasmira(Forskal) in Hawaiian waters. J Fish Biol 36:191–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Morison AK, Burnett J, McCurdy WJ, Moksness E (2005) Quality issues in the use of otoliths for fish age estimation. Mar Freshwater Res 56:773–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mosse JW, Adams S, Welch DJ (2002) Bommie cod, (Cephalopholis cyanostigma): a big surprise from a little fish. In: Williams AJ, Welch DJ, Muldoon G, Marriott R, Kritzer JP, Adams S (Eds) Bridging the gap: a workshop linking student research with fisheries stakeholders. CRC Reef Research Centre Technical Report No. 48, CRC Reef Research Centre, Townsville, pp 94–107Google Scholar
  87. Munro JL, Williams DMcB (1985) Assessment and management of coral reef fisheries: biological, environmental and socio-economic aspects. Proceedings 5th International Coral Reef Congress, Tahiti 4:544–581Google Scholar
  88. Newman SJ (2002) Growth rate, age determination, natural mortality and production potential of the scarlet seaperch, Lutjanus malabaricusSchneider 1801, off the Pilbara coast of north-western Australia. Fish Res 58:215–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Newman SJ, Cappo M, Williams DMcB (2000a) Age, growth, mortality rates and corresponding yield estimates using otoliths of the tropical red snappers, Lutjanus erythropterus, L. malabaricus and L. sebae, from the central Great Barrier Reef. Fish Res 48:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Newman SJ, Cappo M, Williams DMcB (2000b) Age, growth, and mortality of the stripey, Lutjanus carponotatus(Richardson) and the brown-stripe snapper, L. vitta(Quoy and Gaimard) from the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Fish Res 48:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Newman SJ, Dunk IJ (2002) Growth, age validation, mortality and other population characteristics of the red emporer snapper, Lutjanus sebae(Cuvier, 1828), off the Kimberley coast of north-western Australia. Est Coast Shelf Sci 55:67–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Newman SJ, Dunk IJ (2003) Age validation, growth, and additional population parameters of the goldband snapper (Pristipomoides multidens) off the Kimberley coast of northwestern Australia. Fish Bull 101:116–128Google Scholar
  93. Newman SJ, Williams DMcB, Russ GR (1996) Age validation, growth and mortality rates of the tropical snappers (Pisces: Lutjanidae) Lutjanus adetii(Catelnau, 1873) and L. quinquelineatus(Bloch, 1790) from the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Mar Freshwater Res 47:575–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Panfili J, Mbow A, Durand J, Diop K, Diouf K, Thior D, Ndiaye P, Lae R (2004) Influence of salinity on the life-history traits of the West African black-chinned tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron): comparison between the Gambia and Saloum estuaries. Aquat Living Res 17:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pannella G (1974) Otolith growth patterns: an aid in age determination in temperate and tropical fishes. In: Bagenal TB (Ed) The ageing of fish. Unwin Brothers Ltd, London, pp 28–39Google Scholar
  96. Patterson WF, Cowan JH, Wilson CA, Shipp RL (2001) Age and growth of red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus, from an artificial reef area off Alabama in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Fish Bull 99:617–627Google Scholar
  97. Pilling GM, Millner RS, Easey MW, Mees CC, Rathacharen S, Azemia R (2000) Validation of annual growth increments in the otoliths of the lethrinid Lethrinus mahsenaand the lutjanid Aprion virescens from sites in the tropical Indian Ocean, with notes on the nature of growth increments in Pristipomoides filamentosus. Fish Bull 98:600–611Google Scholar
  98. Popper AN, Ramcharitar J, Campana SE (2005) Why otoliths? Insights from inner ear physiology and fisheries biology. Mar Freshwater Res 56:97–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Quinn TJ, Deriso RB (1999) Quantitative fish dynamics. Oxford University Press Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  100. Richter H, McDermott JG (1990) The staining of fish otoliths for age determination. J Fish Biol 36:773–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Russ GR (2002) Yet another review of marine reserves as reef fishery management tools. In: Sale PF (Ed) Coral reef fishes – dynamics and diversity in a complex ecosystem. Academic Press, San Diego, California, pp 421–443Google Scholar
  102. Russ GR, Lou DC, Ferreira BP (1996) Temporal tracking of a strong cohort in the population of a coral reef fish, the coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus(Serranidae: Epinephelinae), in the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 53:2745–2751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Russ GR, Lou DC, Higgs JB, Ferreira BP (1998) Mortality rate of a cohort of the coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus, in zones of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park closed to fishing. Mar Freshwater Res 49:507–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sale PF (1980) The ecology of fishes on coral reefs. Oceanogr Mar Biol Ann Rev 18:367–421Google Scholar
  105. Samuel M, Mathews CP, Bawazeer AS (1987) Age and validation of age from otoliths for warm water fishes from the Arabian Gulf. In: Summerfelt RC, Hall GE (Eds) The age and growth of fish. The Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, pp 253–267Google Scholar
  106. Schmidt DJ, Collins MR, Wyanski DM (1993) Age, growth, maturity and spawning of Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus(Mitchill) from the Atlantic coast of the south eastern United States. Fish Bull 91:526–533Google Scholar
  107. Schwamborn SHL, Ferreira BP (2002) Age structure and growth of the dusky damselfish, Stegastes fuscus, from Tamandare reefs, Pernambuco, Brazil. Env Biol Fish 63:79–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Secor DH, Dean JM, Campana SE (1995) Recent developments in fish otolith research. University of South Carolina Press, ColumbiaGoogle Scholar
  109. Struhsaker P, Uchiyama JH (1976) Age and growth of the nehu, Stolephorus purpureus(Pisces: Engraulidae), from the Hawaiian Islands as indicated by daily growth increments of sagittae. Fish Bull 74:9–17Google Scholar
  110. Thorrold SR, Hare JA (2002) Otolith applications in reef fish ecology. In: Sale PF (Ed) Coral reef fishes – dynamics and diversity in a complex ecosystem. Academic Press, San Diego, California, pp 243–264Google Scholar
  111. Tobin A, Mapleston A (2004) Exploitation dynamics and biological characteristics of the Queensland east coast Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) fishery. CRC Reef Research Centre Technical Report No. 51, CRC Reef Research Centre, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  112. Williams AJ, Davies CR, Mapstone BD (2005) Variation in the periodicity and timing of increment formation in red throat emporer (Lethrinus miniatus) otoliths. Mar Freshwater Res 56:529–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Williams AJ, Davies CR, Mapstone BD, Russ GR (2003) Scales of spatial variation in demography of a large coral reef fish: an exception to the typical model? Fish Bull 101:673–683Google Scholar
  114. Williams T, Bedford BC (1974) The use of otoliths for age determination. In: Bagenal TB (Ed) The ageing of fish. Unwin Brothers, Old Woking, England, pp 114–123Google Scholar
  115. Worthington DG, Doherty PJ, Fowler AJ (1995) Variation in the relationship between otolith weight and age: implications for the estimation of age of two tropical damselfish (Pomacentrus moluccensisand P. wardi). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 52:233–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wright PJ, Panfili J, Morales-Nin B, Geffen AJ (2002) Types of calcified structures. Otoliths. In: Panfili J, de Pontual H, Troadec H, Wright PJ (Eds) Manual of fish sclerochronology. Ifremer-IRD coedition, Brest, France, pp 31–57Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • A.J. Fowler
    • 1
  1. 1.South Australian Research and Development InstituteHenley BeachSouth Australia

Personalised recommendations