Advertisement

Self-Directed Learning as a Key Approach to Effectiveness of Education: A Comparison among Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan

  • Magdalena Mo-Ching Mok
  • Yin-Cheong Cheng
  • Shing-On Leung
  • Peter Wen-Jing Shan
  • Phillip Moore
  • Kerry Kennedy
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE, volume 17)

Keywords

Lifelong Learning Learning Goal Education Reform Secondary Student Academic Motivation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Psychological Association. (1997). Learner-centered psychological principles: A framework for school redesign and reform: Revision prepared by a work group of the American Psychological Association’s Board of Educational Affairs (BEA). Washington, DC: Center for Psychology in Schools and Education, APA Education Directorate.Google Scholar
  2. Bereday, G. Z. F. (1964). Comparative method in education. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  3. Berlyne, D. E. (1960). Conflict, arousal and curiosity. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  4. Bray, M. (2004). Methodology and focus in comparative education. In M. Bray, & R. Koo (Eds.), Education and society in Hong Kong and Macau: Comparative perspectives on continuity and change (pp. 237–250). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre (CERC), The University of Hong Kong & Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  5. Bray, M., & Koo, R. (Eds.). (2004). Education and society in Hong Kong and Macau: Comparative perspectives on continuity and change. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre (CERC), Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong & Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  6. Bray, M., & Thomas, R. M. (1995). Levels of comparison in educational studies: Different insights from different literatures and the value of multilevel analyses. Harvard Educational Review, 65(3), 472–490.Google Scholar
  7. Bruner, J. (1966). The process of education: Towards a theory of instruction. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bruner, J. S. (1996). The culture of education. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Burns, A. C., & Gentry, J. W. (1998). Motivating students to engage in experiential learning: A tension-to-learn theory. Simulation & Gaming, 29(2), 133–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Candy, P. C. (1991). Self-direction for lifelong learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  11. Chang, T. J., Li, Y. Y., Lin, B. J., Ho, H. M., & Hrong, B. L. (1996). The revision of learning and study strategies inventory for college preparatory and vocational high school students. Psychological Testing, 43, 305–330.Google Scholar
  12. Chang, Y. S., & Chien, M. F. (1983). A study on the learning behaviours of secondary students. Psychological Testing, 30, 75–92.Google Scholar
  13. Chen, Y. H., Lin, C. W., & Lee, K. C. (1989). Development of measurement scale for primary students’ learning adjustment. Psychological Testing, 36, 1–12.Google Scholar
  14. Department of School Education and Youth. (2004). Review of Macao SAR Education Law: Consultative Document 11/91/M. Available: http://www.dsej.gov.mo/~webdsej/www/dsejnews/2003/edu_comment/new/chap03.htm (Accessed: 20 February 2006)
  15. Education Commission. (2000). Learning for life, learning through life: Reform proposals for the education system in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Printing Department.Google Scholar
  16. Education Commission. (2004). Progress report on the education reform (3). Hong Kong: Education Commission, Hong Kong SAR Government. Available: http://www.e-c.edu.hk/eng/reform/progress/progress003_ch2_sec3_eng.pdf (Accessed: February 28, 2006)Google Scholar
  17. Ford, M. E. (1995). Intelligence and personality in social behavior. In D. H. Saklofske, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), International handbook of personality and intelligence. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  18. Gollwitzer, P. M. (1996). The volitional benefits of planning. In P. M. Gollwitzer, & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), The psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation to behavior. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  19. Ho, E. S. C. (2003). Accomplishment and challenges of Hong Kong education system. Paper presented at the PISA International Conference: What do the PISA results tell us about education quality and equality in the Pacific Rim, 21–22 November 2003.Google Scholar
  20. Ho, E. S. C. (2004). What does HKPISA 2003 tell us about literacy performance of our students: Results from HKPISA 2003. Presentation on Seminar entitled “PISA2003: Hong Kong Students’ Reading, Mathematical and Scientific Literacy”, 13 December 2004, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  21. Knowles, M. S. (1975). Self-directed learning. New York: Association Press.Google Scholar
  22. Long, H. B. (2000). Understanding self-direction in learning. In L. B. Long (Ed.), Practice and theory in self-directed learning (pp. 11–24). Schaumburg, Illinois: Motorola University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Mok, M. M. C., & Cheng, Y. C. (2002). A theory of self-learning in a networked human and IT environment: Implications for education reforms. International Journal of Educational Management, 15(4), 172–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mok, M. M. C., Cheng, Y. C., Moore, P. J., & Kennedy, K. (2004). The development of measurement scales on self-learning of secondary students. Paper presented to the Australian Association for Research in Education, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia, 28 November – 2 December 2004.Google Scholar
  25. Newman, R. S. (2002). How self-regulated learners cope with academic difficulty: The role of adaptive help seeking. Theory into Practice. 41(2), 132–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Newman, R. S., & Schwager, M. T. (1995). Students’ help-seeking during problem solving: Effect of grade, goal and prior achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 32, 352–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. OECD. (2000). Motivating students for lifelong learning. Paris: Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.Google Scholar
  28. Pinto, A. M. C. (1987). Ensino em Macau: umas abordagem sistémica da realidade educative [Schooling in Macau: A systematic investigation of educational reality] (Macau, Gabinete doSecretário-Adjunto para Educaçaòo e Cultura.) (Quoted in Bray, M., & Koo, R. (2004). Postcolonial patterns and paradoxes: language and education in Hong Kong and Macao, Comparative Education, 40(2), 215–239).Google Scholar
  29. Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  30. Reio, T. G. Jr., & Ward, S. (1998). The role of curiosity in self-directed distance learning on the Web. Proceedings of the 1998 National Conference on the Adult Learner. Richmond, VA: University of South Carolina.Google Scholar
  31. Rheinberg, F., Vollmeyer, R., & Rollett, W. (2000). Motivation and action in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation. San Diego, California: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  32. Ryan, A. M., Gheen, M. H., & Midgley, C. (1998). Why do some students avoid asking for help? An examination of the interplay among students’ academic efficacy, teachers’ social-emotional role, and the classroom goal structure. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 528–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schunk, D. H. (1998). Teaching elementary students to self-regulate practice of mathematical skills with modeling. In D. H. Schunk, & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and performance. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  34. So, C. H. (2005). History of teacher education in Macau and its social context. Paper presented at the First Conference of The Coalition of Teacher Education Institutions in the Pan-Pearl River Delta: New Developments in Teacher Education Curriculum, Council Chamber, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong, 13–15 October 2005.Google Scholar
  35. Sue, D. W., & Kirk, B. A. (1975). Use of counseling and psychiatric services on a college campus. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 22, 84–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Taiwan Ministry of Education. (2000). Aims and objectives of education. Available: http://www.edu.tw:81/english/ (Accessed: 10 September 2003)
  37. Tishby, O., Turel, M., Gumpel, O., Pinus, U., Lavy, S. B., Winohour, M., et al. (2001). Help-seeking attitudes among Israeli adolescents. Adolescence, 36(142), 249–264.Google Scholar
  38. Weinstein, C. E. (1990). Learning and study strategies inventory – high school version (LASSI-HS): User’s manual. Clear water, Fl: H&H Publishing Company, Inc.Google Scholar
  39. Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory into Practice, 41(2), 64–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (Eds.). (2001). Theories of self-regulated learning and academic achievement: an overview and analysis. In B. J. Zimmerman, & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview and analysis (2nd ed.) (pp. 1–37). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Magdalena Mo-Ching Mok
  • Yin-Cheong Cheng
  • Shing-On Leung
  • Peter Wen-Jing Shan
  • Phillip Moore
  • Kerry Kennedy

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations