Models for National CO2 Accounting

  • Jesper Munksgaard
  • Jan Christoph Minx
  • Line Block Christoffersen
  • Lise-Lotte Pade
Part of the Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science book series (ECOE, volume 23)

In international climate change negotiations a country is commonly held responsible for all CO2 emitted from its domestic territory. In the literature this commonly applied CO2 accounting method is called “territorial” or “producer responsibility”. Driven by concerns about carbon leakage (Wyckoff and Roop 1994; Kondo et al. 1998; Ahmad and Wyckoff 2003) and equity associated with the structure of trade relations between developing and developed countries (Schaeffer and De Sá 1996; Machado et al. 2001) as well as import and export structures of small open economies (Munksgaard and Pedersen 2001), “consumer responsibility” has been proposed as an alternative CO2 accounting method.1

From an accounting perspective the difference between the two concepts lies in the treatment of trade related emissions. Besides its domestic emissions a country can either be held responsible for CO2 embodied in exports or imports (or a combination of both). With world trade growing more than twice as fast as world GDP,2 the way how to account for CO2 emissions becomes increasingly relevant for countries in international climate change negotiations and for successful global mitigation efforts as the equity issue becomes more urgent and the threat of carbon leakage becomes more severe.


Trade Balance Direct Emission Consumer Responsibility Commodity Group Indirect Emission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jesper Munksgaard
    • 1
  • Jan Christoph Minx
    • 2
  • Line Block Christoffersen
    • 3
  • Lise-Lotte Pade
    • 4
  1. 1.Energy Management GroupEcon Poyry ASCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Stockholm Environment Institute and Head of the Project Office BerlinTechnical University BerlinGermany
  3. 3.Danish Research InstituteFood Economics in Royal Veterinary and Agricultural UniversityDenmark
  4. 4.Statistics NorwayNorway

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