II.2 Cuprate and other unconventional superconductors

  • Ariando H.
  • H. J. H. Smilde
  • C. J. M. Verwijs
  • G. Rijnders
  • D. H. A. Blank
  • H. Rogalla
  • J. R. Kirtley
  • C. C. Tsuei
  • H. Hilgenkamp
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science Series book series (NAII, volume 241)


Remarkably rich physics is involved in the behavior of hybrid Josephson junctions, connecting high-Tc and low-Tc superconductors. This relates in particular to the different order parameter symmetries underlying the formation of the superconducting states in these materials. Experiments on high-Tc/low-Tc contacts have also played a crucial role in settling the decade-long d-wave versus s-wave debate in cuprate superconductors. Recently, such hybrid junctions have enabled more detailed pairing symmetry tests. Furthermore, with these junctions, complex arrays of π-rings have been realized, enabling studies on spontaneously generated fractional flux quanta and their mutual interactions. Steps toward novel superconducting electronic devices are taken, utilizing the phase-shifts inherent to the d-wave superconducting order parameter. This paper is intended to reflect the current status of experiments using high-Tc and low-Tc Josephson contacts.


Josephson Junction Cuprate Superconductor Superconducting Order Parameter Pairing Symmetry Zigzag Structure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aeppli, G. and Chandra, P. (1997) Seeking a simple complex system, Science 275, 177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akoh, H., Camerlingo, C., and Takada, S. (1990) Anisotropie Josephson junctions of Y-Ba-Cu-O/Au/Nb film sandwiches, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1487.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akoh, H., Shinoki, F., Takahashi, M., and Takada, S. (1988) S-N-S Josephson junction consisting of Y-Ba-Cu-O/Au/Nb thin-films, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27, L519.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akoh, H., Shinoki, F., Takahashi, M., and Takada, S. (1989) Fabrication of S-N-S Josephson-junctions of Y-Ba-Cu-O/Au/Nb sandwices, IEEE Trans. Magn. 25, 795.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ariando, Darminto, D., Smilde, H.-J., Rogalla, H., and Hilgenkamp, H. (2005) Phase-sensitive order parameter symmetry test experiments utilizing Nd2-xCexCuO4-y/Nb zigzag junctions, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 167001.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Averin, D. V. (1998) Adiabatic quantum computation with Cooper pairs, Sol. State Commun. 105, 659.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Balei, H. and Greene, R. L. (2004) Anomalous change in the field dependence of the electronic specific heat of an electron-doped cuprate superconductor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 067001.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Basov, D. N., Liang, R., Bonn, D. A., Hardy, W. N., Dabrowski, B., Quijada, M., Tanner, D. B., Rice, J. P., Ginsberg, D. M., and Timusk, T. (1995) In-plane anisotropy of the penetration depth in YBa2Cu3O7-x and YBa2Cu4O8 superconductors, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 598.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beasley, M. R., Lew, D., and Laughlin, R. B. (1994) Time-reversal symmetry breaking in superconductors: a proposed experimental test, Phys. Rev. B 49, 12330.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bennet, C. H. and DiVincenzo, D. P. (2000) Quantum information and computation, Nature 404, 247.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Biswas, A., Founder, P., Qazilbash, M. M., Smolyaninova, V. N., Balei, H., and Greene, R. L. (2002) Evidence of a d— to s-wave pairing symmetry transition in the electron-doped cuprate superconductor Pr2-xCexCuO4, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 207004.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Biais, A. and Zagoskin, A. M. (2000) Operation of universal gates in a solid-state quantum computer based on clean Josephson junctions between d-wave superconductors, Phys. Rev. A 61, 042308.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blank, D. H. A. and Rogalla, H. (1997) Effect of ion milling on the morphology of ramp-type Josephson junctions, J. Mater. Res. 12, 2952.ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Blatter, G., Geshkenbein, V. B., and loffe, L. B. (2001) Design aspects of superconducting-phase quantum bits, Phys. Rev. B 63, 174511.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bocko, M. F., Herr, A. M., and Feldman, M. J. (1997) Prospects for quantum coherent computation using superconducting electronics, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 7, 3638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bouchiat, V., Vion, D., Joyez, R, Esteve, D., and Devoret, M. H. (1998) Quantum coherence with a single Cooper pair, Physica Scripta T76, 165.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brawner, D. A. and Ott, H. R. (1994a) Evidence for an unconventional superconducting order-parameter in YBa2Cu3O6.9, Phys. Rev. B 50, 6530.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brawner, D. A. and Ott, H. R. (1994b) Evidence for unconventional superconductivity in YBa2Cu3O6.9, Physica C 235, 1867.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brawner, D. A. and Ott, H. R. (1996) Evidence for a non-s-wave superconducting order parameter in YBa2Cu3O6.6 with Tc = 60 K, Phys. Rev. B 53, 8249.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bulaevskii, L. N., Kuzii, V. V., and Sobyanin, A. A. (1977) Superconducting system with weak coupling to current in ground-state, JETP Lett. 25, 290.ADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Chandra, P. and Doucot, B. (1988) Possible spin-liquid state at large S for the frustrated square Heisenberg lattice, Phys. Rev. B 38, 9335.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chesca, B., Doenitz, D., Dahm, T., Huebener, R. P., Koelle, D., Kleiner, R., Ariando, Smilde, H. J. H., and Hilgenkamp, H. (2006) Observation of Andreev bound states in YBa2Cu3O7-x/Au/Nb ramp-type Josephson junctions, Phys. Rev. B 73, 014529.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chesca, B., Ehrhardt, K., Mossle, M., Straub, R., Koelle, D., Kleiner, R., and Tsukada, A. (2003) Magnetic-field dependence of the maximum supercurrent of La2-xCexCuO4-y interferometers: Evidence for a predominant dx 2-y 2 superconducting order parameter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057004.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chesca, B., Seifried, M., Dahm, T., Schopohl, N., Koelle, D., Kleiner, R., and Tsukada, A. (2005) Observation of Andreev bound states in bicrystal grain-boundary Josephson junctions of the electron-doped superconductor La2xCexCuO4y, Phys. Rev. B 71, 104504.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Copetti, C. A., Rüders, F., Oelze, B., Buchal, C., Kabius, B., and Seo, J. W. (1995) Electrical-properties of 45° grain-boundaries of epitaxial YBaCuO, dominated by crystalline microstructure and d-wave-symmetry, Physica C 253, 63.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Covington, M., Aprili, M., Paraoanu, E., Greene, L. H., Xu, E, Zhu, J., and Mirkin, C. A. (1997) Observation of surface-induced broken time-reversal symmetry in YBa2Cu3O7 tunnel junctions, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 277.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dagan, Y and Deutscher, G. (2001) Doping and magnetic field dependence of in-plane tunneling into YBa2Cu3O7-x: possible evidence for the existence of a quantum critical point, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 177004.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Davidovic, D., Kumar, S., Reich, D. H., Siegel, J., Field, S. B., Tiberio, R. C., Hey, R., and Ploog, K. (1996) Magnetic correlations, geometrical frustration, and tunable disorder in arrays of superconducting rings, Phys. Rev. B 55, 6518.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Davidovic, D., Kumar, S., Reich, D. H., Siegel, J., Field, S. B., Tiberio, R. C., Hey, R., and Ploog, K. (1997) Correlations and disorder in arrays of magnetically coupled superconducting rings, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 815.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. DiVincenzo, D. P. (1995) Quantum Computation, Science. 270, 255.ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. DiVincenzo, D. P. and Loss, D. (1998) Quantum computation is physical, Superlattices Microstruct. 23, 419.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. Engelhardt, A., Dittmann, R., and Braginski, A. I. (1999) Subgap conductance features of YBa2Cu3O7-δ edge Josephson junctions, Phys. Rev. B 59, 3815.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fauque, B., Sidis, Y, Hinkov, V., Pailhes, S., Lin, C., Chaud, X., and Bourges, P. (2005) Magnetic order in the pseudogap phase of high-Tc superconductors, Preprint at Scholar
  34. Feigel’man, M. V., loffe, L. B., Geshkenbein, V. B., and Blatter, G. (2000) Andreev spectroscopy for superconducting phase qubits, J. Low Temp. Phys. 118, 805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Foote, M. C., Hunt, B. D., and Bajuk, L. J. (1991) YBa2Cu3O7-x/Au/Nb sandwich geometry SNS weak links on c-axis oriented YBa2Cu3O7-δ, IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 1335.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Friedman, J. R., Patel, V., Chen, W., Tolpygo, S. K., and Lukens, J. E. (2000) Quantum superposition of distinct macroscopic states, Nature 406, 43.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fujimaki, A., Takai, Y., and Hayakawa, H. (1991) Experimental-analysis of superconducting properties of Y-Ba-Cu-O/Ag proximity interfaces, IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 1353.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. Fujimaki, A., Tamaoki, T., Hidaka, T., Yanagase, M., Shiota, T., Takai, Y, and Hayakawa, H. (1990) Experimental-analysis of YBa2Cu3Ox/Ag proximity interfaces, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L1659.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gao, J., Aarnink, W. A. M., Gerritsma, G. J., and Rogalla, H. (1990) Controlled preparation of all high-Tc SNS-type edge junctions and dc squids, Physica C 171, 126.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gao, J., Boguslavskij, Y, Klopman, B. B. G., Terpstra, D., Gerritsma, G. J., and Rogalla, H. (1991) Characteristics of advanced YBa2Cu3Ox PrBa2Cu3Ox YBa2Cu3Ox edge type junctions, Appi. Phys. Lett. 59, 2754.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Geshkenbein, V. B. and Larkin, A. I. (1986) The Josephson effect in superconductors with heavy fermions, JETP Lett. 43, 395.ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. Geshkenbein, V. B., Larkin, A. I., and Barone, A. (1987) Vortices with half magnetic flux quanta in heavy-fermion superconductors, Phys. Rev. B 36, 235.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gim, Y, Mathai, A., Black, R. C., Amar, A., and Wellstood, F. C. (1996) Symmetry of the phase of the order parameter in YBa2Cu3O7-δ, Journal de Physique 16, 2299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Goldobin, E., Sterck, A., Gaber, T., Koelle, D., and Kleiner, R. (2004) Dynamics of semifluxons in Nb long Josephson O-π junctions, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057005.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Golubov, A. A., Kupriyanov, M. Y, and Il’ichev, E. (2004) The current-phase relation in Josephson junctions, Rev. Mod. Phys. 76, 411.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hilgenkamp, H., Ariando, Smilde, H. J. H., Blank, D. H. A., Rijnders, G., Rogalla, H., Kirtley, J. R., and Tsuei, C. C. (2003) Ordering and manipulation of the magnetic moments in large-scale superconducting π-loop arrays, Nature 422, 50.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hilgenkamp, H. and Mannhart, J. (2002) Grain boundaries in high-Tc superconductors, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 485.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. Hilgenkamp, H., Mannhart, J., and Mayer, B. (1996) Implications of dx 2-y 2 symmetry and faceting for the transport properties of grain boundaries in high-Tc superconductors, Phys. Rev. B 53, 14586.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hu, C. R. (1994) Midgap surface states as a novel signature for dx 2-y 2-wave superconductivity, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1526.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hunt, B. D., Foote, M. C., and Bajuk, L. J. (1991) Edge-geometry YBa2Cu3O7-x/Au/Nb SNS devices, IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 848.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  51. Hunt, B. D., Foote, M. C., and Vasquez, R. R (1990) Electrical characterization of chemically modified YBa2Cu3O7-x surfaces, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2678.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ioffe, L. B., Geshkenbein, V. B., Feigel’man, M. V., Fauchere, A. L., and Blatter, G. (1999) Environmentally decoupled sds-wave Josephson junctions for quantum computing, Nature 398, 679.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kaminski, A., Rosenkranz, S., Fretwell, H. M., Campuzano, J. C., Li, Z., Raffy, H., Cullen, W. G., You, H., Oison, C. G., Varma, C. M., and Hochst, H. (2002) Spontaneous breaking of time reversal symmetry in the pseudogap state of a high-Tc superconductor, Nature 416, 610.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kashiwaya, S. and Tanaka, Y (2000) Tunnelling effects on surface bound states in unconventional superconductors, Rep. Prog. Phys. 63, 1641.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kirtley, J. R., Ketchen, M. B., Stawiasz, K. G., Sun, J. Z., Gallagher, W. J., Blanton, S. H., and Wind, S. J. (1995a) High-resolution scanning SQUID microscope, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1138.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kirtley, J. R., Ketchen, M. B., Tsuei, C. C., Sun, J. Z., Gallagher, W. J., Yu-Jahnes, L. S., Gupta, A., Stawiasz, K. G., and Wind, S. J. (1995b) Design and applications of a scanning SQUID microscope, IBM J. Res. Develop. 39, 655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kirtley, J. R., Moler, K. A., and Scalapino, D. J. (1997) Spontaneous flux and magnetic-interference patterns in O-π Josephson junctions, Phys. Rev. B 56, 886.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kirtley, J. R., Tsuei, C. C., Ariando, Smilde, H. J. H., and Hilgenkamp, H. (2005) Antiferro-magnetic ordering in arrays of superconducting π-rings, Phys. Rev. B 72, 214521.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kirtley, J. R., Tsuei, C. C., Ariando, A., Verwijs, C. J. M., Harkema, S., and Hilgenkamp, H. (2006) Angle-resolved phase-sensitive determination of the in-plane gap symmetry in YBa2Cu3O7-δ, Nature Physics. Google Scholar
  60. Laughlin, R. B. (1988) The relationship between high-temperature superconductivity and the fractional quantum hall effect, Science 242, 525.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lawrence, T. W., Szoker, A., and Laughlin, R. B. (1992) Absence of circular dichroism in high-temperature superconductors, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1439.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lerch, R, Leemann, C., Theron, R., and Martinoli, P. (1990) Dynamics of the phase-transition in proximity-effect arrays of Josephson-junctions at full frustration, Phys. Rev. B 41, 11579.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lofwander, T., Shumeiko, V. S., and Wendin, G. (2001) Andreev bound states in high-Tc superconducting j unctions, Supercond. Sci. Technol. 14, R53.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lu, D. H., Feng, D. L., Armitage, N. R, Shen, K. M., Damascelli, A., Kim, C., Ronning, R, Bonn, D. A., Liang, R., Hardy, W. N., Rykov, A. I., and Tajima, S. (2001) Superconducting gap and strong in-plane anisotropy in untwinned YBa2Cu3O7-δ, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4370.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Majer, J. B., Butcher, J. R., and Mooij, J. E. (2002) Simple phase bias for superconducting circuits, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3638.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mannhart, J., Mayer, B., and Hilgenkamp, H. (1996) Anomalous dependence of the critical current of 45° grain boundaries in YBa2Cu3O7-x on an applied magnetic field, Z. Phys. B 101, 175.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  67. Mathai, A., Gim, Y, Black, R. C., Amar, A., and Wellstood, F. C. (1995) Experimental proof of a time-reversal-invariant order parameter with a π shift in YBa2Cu3O7-δ, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4523.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mints, R. G. and Kogan, V. G. (1997) Josephson junctions with alternating critical current density, Phys. Rev. B 55, R8682.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mints, R. G., Papiashvili, I., Kirtley, J. R., Hilgenkamp, H., Hammerl, G., and Mannhart, J. (2002) Observation of splintered Josephson vortices at grain boundaries in YBa2Cu3O7-δ, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 067004.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Moessner, R. and Sondhi, S. L. (2001) Ising models of quantum frustration, Phys. Rev. B 63, 224401.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mooij, J. E., Orlando, T. P., Levitov, L., Tian, L., van der Wal, C. H., and Lloyd, S. (1999) Josephson persistent-current qubit, Science 285, 1036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nakamura, Y, Pashkin, Y. A., and Tsai, J. S. (1999) Coherent control of macroscopic quantum states in a single-Cooper-pair box, Nature 398, 786.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ng, T. K. and Varma, C. M. (2004) Experimental signatures of time-reversal-violating superconductors, Phys. Rev. B 70, 054514.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ortlepp, T., Ariando, Mielke, O., Verwijs, C. J. M., Foo, K. F. K., Rogalla, H., Uhlmann, F H., and Hilgenkamp, H. (2006) Flip-flopping fractional flux quanta, Science 312, 1495.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pannetier, B., Chaussy, J., Rammal, R., and Villegier, J. C. (1984) Experimental fine tuning of frustration: Two-dimensional superconducting network in a magnetic Field, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1845.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Polturak, E., Koren, G., Cohen, D., and Aharoni, E. (1993) Measurements of the anisotropy and temperature dependence of the in-plane energy gap in YBa2Cu3O7-δ using Andreev reflections, Phys. Rev. B 47, 5270.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Preskill, J. (1998) Reliable quantum computers, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 454, 385.MATHADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Qazilbash, M. M., Biswas, A., Dagan, Y., Ott, R. A., and Greene, R. L. (2003) Point-contact spectroscopy of the electron-doped cuprate superconductor Pr2xCexCuO4: The dependence of conductance-voltage spectra on cerium doping, barrier strength, and magnetic field, Phys. Rev. B 68, 024502.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rykov, M. F. L. A. I. and Tajima, S. (1998) Raman scattering study on fully oxygenated YBa2Cu3O7 single crystals: xy anisotropy in the superconductivity-induced effects, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 825.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schnirman, A., Schon, G., and Hermon, Z. (1997) Quantum manipulations of small Josephson junctions, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2371.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Schulz, R. R., Chesca, B., Goetz, B., Schneider, C. W., Schmehl, A., Bielefeldt, H., Hilgenkamp, H., Mannhart, J., and Tsuei, C. C. (2000) Design and realization of an all d-wave dc π-superconducting quantum interference device, Appi. Phys. Lett. 76, 912.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sharoni, A., Millo, O., Kohen, A., Dagan, Y, Beck, R., Deutscher, G., and Koren, G. (2002) Local and macroscopic tunneling spectroscopy of Y1-xCaxBa2Cu3O7-d films: evidence for a doping-dependent is or idxy component in the order parameter, Phys. Rev. B 65, 134526.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sigrist, M. (1998) Time-reversal symmetry breaking states in high-temperature superconductors, Prog. Theor. Phys. 99, 899.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sigrist, M. and Rice, T. M. (1992) Paramagnetic effect in high-Tc superconductors—a hint for d-wave superconductivity, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 61, 4283.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Skinta, J. A., Kim, M. S., Lemberger, T. R., Greibe, T., and Naito, M. (2002) Evidence for a transition in the pairing symmetry of the electron-doped cuprates La2xCexCuO4y, and Pr2xCexCuO4y, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 207005.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Smilde, H. J. H., Ariando, Blank, D. H. A., Gerritsma, G. J., Hilgenkamp, H., and Rogalla, H. (2002a) d-waveinduced Josephson current counterflow in YBa2Cu3O7/Nb Zigzag Junctions, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057004.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Smilde, H. J. H., Ariando, Blank, D. H. A., Hilgenkamp, H., and Rogalla, H. (2004a) π-SQUIDs based on Josephson contacts between high-Tc and low-Tc superconductors, Phys. Rev. B 70, 024519.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Smilde, H. J. H., Ariando, Rogalla, H., and Hilgenkamp, H. (2004b) Bistable superconducting quantum interference device with built-in switchable π/2 phase shift, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4091.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Smilde, H. J. H., Golubov, A. A., Ariando, Rijnders, G., Dekkers, J. M., Harkema, S., Blank, D. H. A., Rogalla, H., and Hilgenkamp, H. (2005) Admixtures to d-wave gap symmetry in untwinned YBa2Cu3C7 superconducting films measured by angle-resolved electron tunneling, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257001.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Smilde, H. J. H., Hilgenkamp, H., Gerritsma, G. J., Blank, D. H. A., and Rogalla, H. (2001a) Realization and properties of ramp-type YBa2Cu3O7-δ/Au/Nb junctions, Physica C 350, 269.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Smilde, H. J. H., Hilgenkamp, H., Gerritsma, G. J., Blank, D. H. A., and Rogalla, H. (200lb) Y-Ba-Cu-O/Au/Nb ramp-type Josephson junctions, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11, 501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Smilde, H. J. H., Hilgenkamp, H., Rijnders, G., Rogalla, H., and Blank, D. H. A. (2002b) Enhanced transparency ramp-type Josephson contacts through interlayer deposition, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4579.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Spielman, S., Dodge, J. S., Lombardo, L. W., Eom, C. B., Fejer, M. M., Geballe, T. H., and Kapitulnik, A. (1992) Measurement of the spontaneous polar Kerr effect in YBa2Cu3O7 and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3472.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tafuri, F. and Kirtley, J. R. (2005) Weak links in high critical temperature superconductors, Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 2573.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Terai, H., Fujimaki, A., Takai, Y., and Hayakawa, H. (1993) Magnetic-field dependence of high Jc YBa2Cu3O7-x/Au/Nb junctions using alpha-axis-oriented YBa2Cu3O7-x thin-films, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L901.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Terai, H., Fujimaki, A., Takai, Y, and Hayakawa, H. (1995) Electrical interface structure YBa2Cu3O7-x metal contact, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 5, 2408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Terzioglu, E. and Beasley, M. R. (1998) Complementary Josephson junction devices and circuits: A possible new approach to superconducting electronics, IEEE Trans. Appl. Sup. 8, 48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Tsuei, C. C. and Kirtley, J. R. (2000a) Pairing symmetry in cuprate superconductors, Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 969.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tsuei, C. C. and Kirtley, J. R. (2000b) Phase-sensitive evidence for d-wave pairing symmetry in electron-doped cuprate superconductors, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 182.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Tsuei, C. C., Kirtley, J. R., Chi, C. C., Yu-jahnes, L. S., Gupta, A., Shaw, T., Sun, J. Z., and Ketchen, M. B. (1994) Pairing symmetry and flux quantization in a tricrystal superconducting ring of YBa2Cu3O7-δ, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 593.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tsuei, C. C., Kirtley, J. R., Hammerl, G., Mannhart, J., Raffy, H., and Li, Z. Z. (2004) Robust dx 2 y 2 pairing symmetry in hole-doped cuprate superconductors, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 187004.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Usagawa, T., Wen, J. G., Ishimaru, Y, Koyama, S., Utagawa, T., and Enomoto, Y (1998) Stability of ultrasmooth surface morphology of (110) YBa2Cu3O7-δ homoepitaxial films and Nb/Au/(110) YBa2Cu3O7-δ junctions, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3202.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ustinov, A. V. and Kaplunenko, V. K. (2003) Rapid single-flux quantum logic using π-shifters, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 5405.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. van der Wal, C. H., ter Haar, A. C. J., Wilhelm, F. K., Schouten, R. N., and Mooij, C. J. P. M. H. T. P. O. S. L. J. E. (2000) Quantum superposition of macroscopic persistent-current states, Science 290, 773.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. van Harlingen, D. J. (1995) Phase-sensitive tests of the symmetry of the pairing state in the high-temperature superconductorsEvidence for dx 2-y 2 symmetry, Rev. Mod. Phys. 67, 515.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Varma, C. M. (1999) Pseudogap phase and the quantum-critical point in copper-oxide metals, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3538.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Varma, M. E. S. C. M. (2002) Detection and implications of a time-reversal breaking state in underdoped cuprates, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 247003.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Verhoeven, M. A. J., Moerman, R., Bijlsma, M. E., Rijnders, A. J. H. M., Blank, D. H. A., Gerritsma, G. J., and Rogalla, H. (1996) Nucleation and growth of PrBa2Cu3O7-δ barrier layers on ramps in DyBa2Cu3O7-δ studied by atomic force microscopy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1276.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wen, J. G., Koshizuka, N., Tanaka, S., Satoh, T., Hidaka, M., and Tahara, S. (1999) Atomic structure and composition of the barrier in the modified interface high-Tc Josephson junction studied by transmission electron microscopy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2470.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wollman, D. A., van Harlingen, D. J., Giapintzakis, J., and Ginsberg, D. M. (1995) Evidence for d x 2-y 2 Pairing from the Magnetic Field Modulation of YBa2Cu3O7-Pb Josephson Junctions, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 797.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wollman, D. A., van Harlingen, D. J., Lee, W. C., Ginsberg, D. M., and Leggett, A. J. (1993) Experimental determination of the superconducting parring state in YBCO from the phase coherence of YBCO-Pb dc SQUIDs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2134.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Zenchuk, A. and Goldobin, E. (2004) Analysis of ground states of O-π long Josephson junctions, Phys. Rev. B 69, 024515.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ariando H.
    • 1
  • H. J. H. Smilde
    • 1
  • C. J. M. Verwijs
    • 1
  • G. Rijnders
    • 1
  • D. H. A. Blank
    • 1
  • H. Rogalla
    • 1
  • J. R. Kirtley
    • 2
  • C. C. Tsuei
    • 2
  • H. Hilgenkamp
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Science and Technology and MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology,University of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands
  2. 2.IBM T. J. Watson Research CenterYorktown HeightsNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations