Novel biomechanical analysis of plant roots
The mechanical behaviour of individual roots and their interaction with soil controls plant anchorage and slope stabilisation, and this is controlled by plant genotype. Tensile tests were performed on roots of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum ‘Samsun’) plants with lignin biosynthesis pathways affected by down-regulating cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) enzyme production. Altering this pathway resulted in root stiffness <50% of the unmodified control, although failure stress was not different. Like most biological tissues, the roots had non-linear mechanical behaviour, were irregular in shape, and heterogeneous. Particle image velocimetry (PIV), applied for the first time to the tensile testing of materials, identified the localised strain fields that developed in roots under tension. PIV uses a cross correlation technique to measure localised displacements on the surface of the root between sequential digital images taken at successive strain intervals during tensile loading. Further analysis of root sections showed that non-linear mechanical behaviour is affected by cellular rupture, with a clear step-wise rupture from cortex to stele in some younger roots. This will affect slip planes that develop under pull-out at the root–soil interface. By assessing localised axial and radial strain along a root section with PIV, we have been able to determine the true stress that controls ultimate failure and the true stress–strain behaviour along the root length. The techniques used have clear potential to enhance our understanding of mechanical interactions at the root–soil interface.
KeywordsParticle Image Velocimetry True Stress Radial Strain Lignin Biosynthesis Tobacco Root
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