Ultra-high Energy Cosmic Rays: From GeV to ZeV

  • Gustavo Medina Tanco
Conference paper
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings book series (ASSSP)

Abstract

Cosmic ray (CR) particles arrive at the top of the Earth’s atmosphere at a rate of around 103 per square meter per second. They are mostly ionized nuclei - about 90% protons, 9% alpha particles traces of heavier nuclei and approximately 1% electrons. CRs are characterized by their high energies: most cosmic rays are relativistic, having kinetic energies comparable to or somewhat greater than their rest masses. A very few of them have ultrarelativistic energies extending beyond 1020 eV (tens of joules).

Keywords

Sugar Microwave Anisotropy Depression Attenuation 

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Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gustavo Medina Tanco
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, México & Instituto Astronômico e Geofísico, USPMéxico

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