• K.-P. Seiler
  • J.R. Gat
Part of the Water Science and Technology Library book series (WSTL, volume 55)


Fresh-water on continents is made up by two-third of ice and one-third of nonsolid water. Groundwater accounts for 96.3% of all non-solid fresh-water resources (8,000,000 km3), followed by lake water (2.7%), soil water (0.8%), and river water (0.01%); the rest belongs to atmospheric water vapor. Most lakes are interrelated with groundwater; more than 45% of the surface discharge of rivers in humid and semi-arid climates originates from groundwater, whereas in arid (dry-land) and cold climates surface discharge contributes to groundwater.


Groundwater Recharge Groundwater Management Water Withdrawal Natural Attenuation Atmospheric Water Vapor 
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Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • K.-P. Seiler
    • 1
  • J.R. Gat
    • 2
  1. 1.GSF National Research CentreNeuherbergGermany
  2. 2.Weizmann Institute of ScienceIsrael

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