Conference paper
Part of the NATO Security through Science Series book series


During the past 30 years, most plant pathogenic viruses and viroids have been characterized in terms of their base sequence. A few, such as viruses in the family Luteoviridae, were harder to crack than others but recently yielded to this approach (e.g. Huang et al., 2005). With the primary base sequences of these viruses determined, it was possible to infer relationships but also to identify the positions of functional units. Additionally, it was often possible to unravel the complex interactions in time and space involved with genome expression. Thus, because of their relatively small genome sizes, viruses were in the vanguard of what has come to be grouped under the generic title “omic” technologies; the word “transcriptomics” was not used to describe these early technological thrusts but might be now.


Molecular Beacon Nucleic Acid Hybridization Maize Streak Virus Turnip Mosaic Virus Nucleic Acid Spot Hybridization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bariani, H.S., A.L. Shannon, P.G.W. Chu, and P.M. Waterhouse, 1994. Detection of five seedborne legume viruses in one sensitive multiplex polymerase chain reaction test, Phytopathology, 84, 1201–1205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brandsma, J., and G. Miller, 1980. Nucleic acid spot hybridization: Rapid quantitative screening of lymphoid cell lines for Epstein-Barr viral DNA, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 77, 6851–6855.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cooper, J.I., and M.L. Edwards, 1986. Variations and limitations of enzyme amplified immunoassays, in Developments and applications in Virus Testing, edited by R.A.C. Jones and L. Torrance, Association of Applied Biologists, Wellesbourne, U.K., pp. 139–154.Google Scholar
  4. Edelstein, M.L., M.R. Abedi, J. Wixon, and R.M. Edelstein, 2004. Gene therapy clinical trials worldwide 1989–2004—an overview, J. Gene Medic., 6, 597–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gibbs, M.J., I. Cooper, and P.M. Waterhouse, 1996. The genome organization and affinities of an Australian isolate of carrot mottle umbravirus, Virology, 224, 310–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gibbs, A.J., and A. MacKenzie, 1997. A primer pair for amplifying part of the genome of all potyvirids by RT-PCR, J. Virol. Meth., 63, 9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gould, A.R., and R.H. Symons, 1983. A molecular biological approach to relationships among viruses, Ann. Rev. Phytopathol., 21, 179–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Harper, G., J.O. Osuji, J.P.S. Heslop Harrison, and R. Hull, 1999. Integration of banana streak badnavirus into the Musa genome: Molecular and cytological evidence, Virology, 255, 207–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Huang, L.F., M. Naylor, D.W. Pallett, J. Reeves, J.I. Cooper, and H. Wang, 2005. The complete genome sequence, organisation and affinities of carrot red leaf virus, Arch. Virol., 150, 1845–1855.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jackson, R.J., A.J. Ramsay, C.D. Christensen, S. Beaton, D.F. Hall, and I.A. Ramshaw, 2001. Expression of mouse interleukin-4 by a recombinant ectromelia virus suppresses cytolytic lymphocyte responses and overcomes genetic resistance to mousepox, J. Virol., 75, 1205–1210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jones, R.A.C., and L. Torrance, 1986. Developments in Applied Biology 1. Developments and Applications in Virus Testing, Association of Applied Biologists, Wellesbourne, U.K., 312 p.Google Scholar
  12. Mackay, I.M., K.E. Arden, and A. Nitsche, 2002. Real–time PCR in virology, Nucl. Acids Res., 30, 1292–1305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. McCann, S., 1999. Web PCR, Nat Biotechnol., 17, 304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. MacKenzie, D.J., M.A. McLean, S. Mukerji, and M. Green, 1997. Improved RNA extraction from woody plants for the detection of viral pathogens by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, Plant Dis., 81, 222–226.Google Scholar
  15. Mullis, K.B., 1990. The unusual origins of the polymerase chain reaction, Sci. Am., 263, 56–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nathwani, A.C., A.M. Davidoff, and D.C. Leach, 2004. A review of gene therapy for haematological disorders, Br. J. Haematol., 128, 3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Newbury, H.J., and J.V. Possingham, 1979. Factors affecting the extraction of intact ribonucleic acid from plant tissues containing interfering phenolic compounds, Plant Physiol., 60, 543–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Olmos, A., M. Cambra, M.A. Dasi, T. Candresse, O. Esteban, M.T. Gorris, and M. Asensio, 1997. Simultaneous detection and typing of plum pox virus (PPV) isolates by Semi-nested PCR and PCR-ELISA, J. Virol. Meth., 68, 127–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Revers, F., H. Lot, S. Souche, O. Le Gall, T. Candresse, and J. Dunez, 1997. Biological and molecular variability of lettuce mosaic virus isolates, Phytopathology, 87, 397–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Robertson, N.L., and D.C. Ianson, 2005. First Report of Turnip mosaic virus in rhubarb in Alaska, Plant Dis., 89, 430.Google Scholar
  21. Robertson, N.L., R. French, and S.M. Gray, 1991. Use of group specific primers and the detection and identification of luteoviruses, J. Gen. Virol., 72, 1473–1477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rybicki, E.P., and F.L. Hughes, 1990. Detection and typing of maize streak virus and other distantly related geminiviruses of grasses by polymerase chain reaction amplification of a conserved viral sequence, J. Gen. Virol., 71, 2519–2526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Saiki, R.K., D.H. Gelfand, S. Stoffel, S.J. Scharf, R. Higuchi, G.T. Horn, K.B. Mullis, and H.A. Erlich, 1988. Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase, Science, 239, 487–491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Stevens, M., R. Hull, and H.G. Smith, 1997. Comparison of ELISA and RT-PCR for the detection of beet yellows closterovirus in plants and aphids, J. Virol. Meth., 68, 9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tian, T., V.A. Klaasen, J. Soong, G. Wisler, J.E. Duffus, and B.W. Falk, 1996. Generation of cDNAs specific to lettuce infectious yellows closterovirus and other whitefly-transmitted viruses by RT-PCR and degenerate oligonucleotide primers corresponding to the closterovirus gene coding the heat shock protein, Phytopathology, 86, 1167–1173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Thomson, D., and R.G. Dietzgen, 1995. Detection of DNA and RNA plant viruses by PCR and RT-PCR using a rapid virus release protocol without tissue homogenization, J. Virol. Meth., 54, 85–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tyagi, S., D.P. Bratu, and F.R. Kramer, 1998. Multicolor molecular beacons for allele discrimination, Nat. Biotechnol., 16, 49–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wetzel, T., T. Candresse, G. Macquaire, M. Ravelonandro, and J. Dunez, 1992. A highly sensitive immunocapture polymerase chain reaction method for plum pox potyvirus detection, J. Virol. Meth., 39, 27–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Whitham, S.A., S. Quan, H.S. Chang, B. Cooper, B. Estes, T. Zhu, X. Wang, and Y.M. Hou, 2003. Diverse RNA viruses elicit the expression of common sets of genes in susceptible Arabidopsis thaliana plants, Plant J. 33, 271–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations