Advertisement

Urban areas and isolated remnants of natural habitats: an action proposal for botanical gardens

  • Marcelo H. O. Pinheiro
  • Luiz C. de Almeida Neto
  • Reinaldo Monteiro
Chapter
Part of the Topics in Biodiversity and Conservation book series (TOBC, volume 3)

Abstract

The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) advocates an increase of the number of botanical gardens throughout the world as one of the measures that can help to preserve the world’s biodiversity. To implement this strategy, the present work brings forward a suggestion particularly suited to tropical regions: establishing municipal botanical gardens. It refers to the experience of a newly opened municipal botanical garden in Brazil, comparing its attractive power on visitors to that of other botanical gardens included in the Brazilian network of Botanical Gardens. It also presents considerations on in situ conservation in small remnants and on the importance of urban reserves to preserve the regional biodiversity and spread the conservationist philosophy. The present proposal promotes the participation of local communities making the public opinion more aware and active, besides being able to counterbalance proposals that support protecting the world biodiversity through interventionist actions. It assumes that, through actions planned and coordinated by regional and national botanical garden networks, the measure proposed can mitigate the anthropic actions exerted on important natural reserves all over the world.

Key words

Biodiversity Botanical garden network Environmental education Municipal remnants Urban reserves 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alho C.J.R. and Martins E.S. 1995. De Grão em Grão, o Cerrado Perde Espaço. Cerrado: Impactos do Processo de Ocupação. WWF — Fundo Mundial para a Natureza, Brasília, Distrito Federal.Google Scholar
  2. Ashton P.S. 1987. Biological considerations in in situ vs ex situ plant conservation. Proceedings of an International Conference Botanic Gardens and the World Conservation Strategy 3–18.Google Scholar
  3. Ashton P.S. 1988. Conservation of biological diversity in botanical gardens. In: Wilson E.O. (ed.), Biodiversity. National Academy Press, Washington, pp. 269–278.Google Scholar
  4. Avaliação e Ações Prioritárias para a Conservação da Biodiversidade da Mata Atlântica e Campos Sulinos 2000. Brasília: Ministério do Meio Ambiente. Secretaria de Biodiversidade e Florestas, São Paulo, São Paulo.Google Scholar
  5. Baschak L.A. and Brown R.D. 1995. An ecological framework for the planning, design and management of urban river greenways. Landscape Urban Plan. 33: 211–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bauru 1997. Plano Diretor de Bauru 1996: Cadernos de Dados, Levantamentos, Diagnósticos, Lei No. 4126/1996. Prefeitura Municipal de Bauru, Secretaria Municipal do Planejamento, Bauru, São Paulo.Google Scholar
  7. Brown S. and Lugo A.E. 1990. Tropical secondary forests. J. Trop. Ecol. 6: 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burkart M. 2001. River corridor plants (Stromtalpflanzen) in Central European lowland: a river of a poorly understood plant distribution pattern. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 10: 449–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Caldecott J.O. 1996. Designing Conservation Projects. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.Google Scholar
  10. Cavassan O. 1990 Florística e fitossociologia da vegetação lenhosa de um hectare de cerrado no Parque Ecológico Municipal de Bauru (SP). Ph.D. Thesis, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas.Google Scholar
  11. Cavassan O., Paschoal M.E.S., Azevedo A.M.G., Barbosa A.V.G. and Dias N.M 1995. Avaliação do desenvolvimento de essências nativas introduzidas em uma área degradada. Salusvita 13: 15–24.Google Scholar
  12. Chiarello A.G. 1999. Effects of fragmentation of the atlantic forest on mamad communities in south-eastern Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 89: 71–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Collinge S.K. 1996. Ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation: implications for landscape architecture and planning. Landscape Urban Plan. 36: 59–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente, Rede Brasileira de Jardins Botânicos, Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Botanic Gardens Conservation International 2001. Normas internacionais de conservação para jardins botânicos. EMC, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
  15. Danielsen F., Balete D.S., Poulsen M.K., Enghoff M., Nozawa C.M. and Jensen A.E. 2000. A simple system for monitoring biodiversity in protected areas of a developing country. Biodivers. Conserv. 9: 1671–1705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Diretório dos Jardins Botânicos Brasileiros 2000. Expressão e Cultura, Rede Brasileira de Jardins Botânicos, Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
  17. Ehrenfeld J.G. 2000. Evaluating wetlands within an urban context. Ecol. Eng. 15: 253–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Elloff J.N. 1987. Botanic gardens and education in South Africa. Proceedings of an International Conference Botanic Gardens and the World Conservation Strategy 85–100.Google Scholar
  19. Evans J.M. and Schiller S. 1996. Application of microclimate studies in town planning: a new capital city, an existing urban district and urban river front development. Atmos. Environ. 30: 361–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fernández-Juricic E. and Jokimäki J. 2001. A habitat island approach to conserving birds in urban landscapes: case studies from southern and northern Europe. Biodivers. Conserv. 10: 2023–2043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Forero E. 1987. 80,000 plants in South America: the case for creating more botanic gardens. Proceedings of an International Conference Botanic Gardens and the World Conservation Strategy, 227–37.Google Scholar
  22. Forero E. 1989. Los jardines botanicos y la conservacion de la naturaleza. Acta Bot. Brasil. 3: 315–322.Google Scholar
  23. Frankel O.H. and Soulé M.E. 1981. Conservation and Evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.Google Scholar
  24. Garcia M.J., Pinheiro M.H.O., Rueda J., Monteiro R., Cesar O. and Mune S.E. 1997. Considerações preliminares sobre a microflora quaternária proveniente de um solo do Jardim Botânico Municipal de Bauru, São Paulo Brasil. Revista Universidade de Guarulhos — Geociências 2: 242.Google Scholar
  25. Given D.R. 1987. What the conservation requires of ex situ collections. Proceedings of an International Conference Botanic Gardens and the World Conservation Strategy, 103–116.Google Scholar
  26. Gnaneshwar V. 1995. Urban policies in India: paradoxes and predicaments. Habitat Int. 19: 293–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gonzáles-Solis J., Guix J.C., Mateos E. and Llorens L. 2001. Population density of primates in a large fragment of the Brazilian atlantic rainforest. Biodivers. Conserv. 10: 1267–1282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Götmark F., Söderlundh H. and Thorell M. 2000. Buffer zones for forest reserves: opinions of land owners and conservation value of the forest around nature reserves in southern Sweden. Biodivers. Conserv. 9: 1390–1390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hamann O. 1987. The IUCN/WWF plants conservation programme. Proceedings of an International Conference Botanic Gardens and the World Conservation Strategy 31–43.Google Scholar
  30. Hardy P.B. and Dennis R.L.H. 1999. The impact of urban development on butterflies within a city region. Biodivers. Conserv. 8: 1261–1279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Henle K. and Mühlenberg M. 1996. Areas requirement and isolation: conservation concepts and application in Central Europe. In: Settele J., Margules C., Poschlod P. and Henle K. (eds), Species Survival in Fragmented Landscapes. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 111–122.Google Scholar
  32. Heywood V. 1987. The change role of the botanic gardens. Proceedings of an International Conference Botanic Gardens and the World Conservation Strategy 3–18.Google Scholar
  33. Hoehne F.C., Kuhlmann M. and Handro O. 1941. O Jardim Botânico de São Paulo. Departamento de Botânica do Estado, São Paulo, São Paulo.Google Scholar
  34. Hoyt E. 1992. Conservando los Parientes Silvestres de las Plantas Cultivadas. Addison-Wesley Iberoamericana, Wilmington.Google Scholar
  35. Huber O. 2001. Conservation and environmental concerns in the Venezuelan Amazon. Biodivers. Conserv. 10: 1627–1643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística 2001. Censo Demográfico 2000: Características da População e dos Domicílios. Resultados do Universo, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
  37. IUCN 1987. The IUCN Botanic Gardens Conservation Strategy: a summary. Proceedings of an International Conference Botanic Gardens and the World Conservation Strategy xxxvii–xxxix.Google Scholar
  38. IUCN 1989. The Botanic Gardens Conservation Strategy. IUCN Botanic Gardens Conservation Secretariat. World Wide Fund for Nature, Gland.Google Scholar
  39. Janzen D.H. 1988. Management of habitat fragments in a tropical dry forest: growth. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75: 105–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jepson P. and Canney S. 2001. Biodiversity hotspots: hot for what? Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 10: 225–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jordan W.R.III 1988. Ecological restoration: reflections on a half-century of experience at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Arboretum. In: Wilson E.O. (ed.), Biodiversity. National Academy Press, Washington, pp. 311–316.Google Scholar
  42. Kattan G.H. and Alvarez-López H. 1996. Preservation and management of biodiversity in fragmented landscapes in the Colombian Anden. In: Schelhas J. and Greenberg R. (eds), Forest Patches in Tropical Landscapes. Island Press, Washington, pp. 3–18.Google Scholar
  43. Kemper J., Cowling R.M. and Richardson D.M. 1999. Fragmentation of South African renosterveld shrublands: effects on plant community structure and conservation implications. Biol. Conserv. 90: 103–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Konijnendijk C.C. 2000. Adapting forestry to urban demands — role of communication in urban forestry in Europe. Landscape Urban Plan. 52: 89–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kronka F.J.N., Nalon M.A., Matsukuma C.K., Pavão M., Guillaumon J.R. and Cavalli A.C. et al. 1998. Áreas de Domínio do Cerrado no Estado de São Paulo. Secretaria do Meio Ambiente, São Paulo, São Paulo.Google Scholar
  46. Kunin W.E. 1997. Sample shape, spatial scale and species counts: implications for reserve design. Biol. Conserv. 82: 369–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Laurence W.L., Delamônica P., Laurence S.G., Vasconcelos H.L. and Lovejoy T.E. 2000. Rainforest fragmentation kills big trees. Nature 404: 836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ledig F.T. 1986. Heterozygosity, heterosis, and fitness in outbreeding plants. In: Soulé M.E. (ed.), Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, pp. 77–104.Google Scholar
  49. Margules C. 1996. Experimental fragmentation. In: Settele J., Margules C., Poschlod P. and Henle K. (eds), Species Survival in Fragmented Landscapes. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 128–137.Google Scholar
  50. Margules C.R. and Pressey R.L. 2000. Systematic conservation planning. Nature 405: 243–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Marsden S.J., Whiffin M. and Galetti M. 2001. Bird diversity and abundance in forest fragments and Eucalyptus plantation around an Atlantic forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 10: 737–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Maunder M., Lyle B., Dransfield J. and Baker W. 2001a. The conservation value of botanic garden palm collections. Biol. Conserv. 98: 259–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Maunder M., Higgens S. and Culham A. 2001b. The effectiveness of botanic gardens collections in supporting plant conservation: a European case study. Biodivers. Conserv. 10: 383–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. May R.M. 1975. Island biogeography and the desing of wildlife preserves. Nature 254: 177–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McCann K.S. 2000. The diversity-stability debate. Nature 405: 228–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. McGeoch M.A. and Chown S.L. 1997. Impact of urbanization on a gall-inhabiting Lepidoptera assemblage: the importance of reserves in urban areas. Biodivers. Conserv. 6: 979–993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McGuckin C.P. and Brown R.D. 1995. A landscape ecological model for wildlife enhancement of stormwater management practices in urban greenways. Landscape Urban Plan. 33: 227–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Meffe G.K. and Carroll C.R. 1997. Conservation reserves in heterogeneous landscapes. In: Meffe G.K. and Carroll C.R. (eds), Principles of Conservation Biology. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, pp. 305–343.Google Scholar
  59. Mello L.V.F. 1917. Câmara Municipal de Bauru. Relatório da Administração do Município, durante o ano de 1917. O Estado de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo.Google Scholar
  60. Mendonça M.P. and Lins L.V. (org). 2000. Lista vermelha das espécies ameaçadas de extinção da flora de Minas Gerais. Fundação Biodiversitas, Fundação ZooBotânica de Belo Horizonte, Belo Horizonte.Google Scholar
  61. Murphy D.D. 1988. Challenges to biological diversity in urban areas. In: Wilson E.O. (ed.), Biodiversity. National Academy Press, Washington, pp. 71–76.Google Scholar
  62. Myers N. 1980. Conversion of Tropical Moist Forests. A report prepared for the Committee on Research Priorities in Tropical Biology of the National Research Priorities in Tropical Biology of the National Council. National Academy of Sciences, Washington.Google Scholar
  63. Myers N., Mittermeier R.A., Mittermeier C.G., Fonseca G.A.B. and Kent J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853–858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Paschoal M.E.S. and Corrêa P.L. 1996. Pelas Trilhas do Jardim Botânico de Bauru. EDUSC, Bauru, São Paulo.Google Scholar
  65. Pinheiro M.H.O. 2000. Levantamento florístico e fitossociológico da floresta estacional semidecidual do Jardim Botânico Municipal de Bauru, São Paulo. MSc Thesis, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas.Google Scholar
  66. Pinheiro M.H.O., Monteiro R. and Cesar O. 2002. Levantamento fitossociológico da floresta estacional semidecidual do Jardim Botânico de Bauru, São Paulo. Naturalia 27: 145–164.Google Scholar
  67. Pinto L.P.S., Costa J.P.O., Fonseca G.A.B. and Costa C.M.R. (eds) 1996. Mata Atlântica: Ciência, Conservação e Políticas. Workshop científico sobre a Mata Atlântica. Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente, São Paulo, São Paulo.Google Scholar
  68. Pither R. and Kellman M. 2002. Tree species diversity in small, tropical riparian forest fragments in Belize, Central America. Biodivers. Conserv. 11: 1623–1636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Primack R.B. and Rodrigues E. 2001. Biologia da Conservação. E. Rodrigues, Londrina, Paraná.Google Scholar
  70. Purvis A. and Hector A. 2000. Getting the measure of biodiversity. Nature 405: 212–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Raven P. 1987. The scope of the plant conservation problem world-wide. Proceedings of an International Conference Botanic Gardens and the World Conservation Strategy 19–29.Google Scholar
  72. Santos T.C.C. and Câmara J.B.D. 2002. Geo Brasil 2002: Perspectivas do Meio Ambiente no Brasil. Edições IBAMA, Brasília, Distrito Federal.Google Scholar
  73. São Paulo. Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente 1997. Cerrado: bases para conservação e uso sustentável das áreas de cerrado do estado de São Paulo. Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente, São Paulo, São Paulo.Google Scholar
  74. Saunders D.A., Hobbs R.J. and Margules C.R. 1991. Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation: a review. Conserv. Biol. 5: 18–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Scott J.M., Murray M., Wright R.G., Csuti B., Morgan P. and Pressey R.L. 2001. Representation of natural vegetation in protected areas: capturing the geographic range. Biodivers. Conserv. 10: 1297–1301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Simmons J.B.E. and Beyer R.I. 1987. Cooperation in training and technical liaison between botanic gardens. Proceedings of an International Conference Botanic Gardens and the World Conservation Strategy 263–270.Google Scholar
  77. SNUC 2000. Sistema Nacional de Unidades de Conservação da Natureza: Lei 9.985 de 18 de julho de 2000. Ministério do Meio Ambiente, Secretaria de Biodivesidade e Florestas, Brasília, Distrito Federal.Google Scholar
  78. Spellerberg I.F. and Hardes S.H. 1995. Biological Conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.Google Scholar
  79. Stace C.A. 1991. Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics. Edward Arnold, London.Google Scholar
  80. Terborgh J. and Boza M.A. 2002. Internacionalização da conservação da natureza. In: Terborgh J., van Schaik C., Davenport L. and Rao M. (orgs) (eds), Tornando os Parques Eficientes: Estratégias para Conservação da Natureza nos Trópicos. Editora UFPR, Curitiba, Paraná, pp. 414–425.Google Scholar
  81. Terborgh J. and van Schaik C. 2002. Por que o mundo necessita de parques. In: Terborg J., van Schaik C., Davenport L. and Rao M. (org) (eds), Tornando os Parques Eficientes: Estratégias para a Conservação da Natureza nos Trópicos. Editora UFPR, Curitiba, Paraná, pp. 25–36.Google Scholar
  82. Thiollay J.M. 2002. Bird diversity and selection of protected areas in a large neotropical forest tract. Biodivers. Conserv. 11: 1377–1395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tilman D. 2000. Causes, consequences and ethics of biodiversity. Nature 405: 208–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tunnicliffe E.D. 2001. Talking about plants — comments of primary school groups looking at plant exhibits in a botanical garden. J. Biol. Educ. 36: 27–34.Google Scholar
  85. Turner I.M. 1996. Species loss in fragments of tropical rain forest: a review of the evidence. J. Appl. Ecol. 33: 200–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Turner I.M. and Corlett R.T. 1996. The conservation value of small, isolated fragments of lowland tropical rain forest. Trends Ecol. Evol. 11: 330–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Viana V.M. and Tabanez A.J. 1996. Biology and conservation of forest fragments in the Brazilian atlantic Moist Forest. In: Schelhas J. and Greenberg R. (eds), Forest Patches in Tropical Landscapes. Island Press, Washington, pp. 151–167.Google Scholar
  88. Vuorisalo T., Lahtinen R. and Laaksonen H. 2001. Urban biodiversity in local newspapers: a historical perspective. Biodivers. Conserv. 10: 1739–1756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Williams J.T. and Creech J.L. 1987. Genetic conservation and the role of botanic garden. Proceedings of an International Conference Botanic Gardens and the World Conservation Strategy 161–173.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcelo H. O. Pinheiro
    • 1
  • Luiz C. de Almeida Neto
    • 2
  • Reinaldo Monteiro
    • 1
  1. 1.Botany Department of the Universidade Estadual PaulistaSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Municipal Botanical Garden of BauruBauru, São PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations