Advertisement

Traditional and Transitional TVET Systems

  • Poonam Agrawal

Human ingenuity, supported by an instinctive urge to explore and learn, manifests itself in dynamic creativity. It transforms itself into a mechanism for transferring ‘acquired’ knowledge and accumulated experience to future generations. The whole process of acquisition and evolution of knowledge and its transfer is covered by the term ‘education’. It also covers various transitions, reforms and adaptations that are taking place more frequently in the current context. The fast pace of development is driving even ‘established’ societies to conduct a process of continuous review and reforms. With respect to technical and vocational education and training (TVET), throughout the world countries are constantly trying to adapt it to a new economic and social order. However, whatever is transitional today may become a tradition in times to come, and something that had been a tradition may again find a place in transitional and futuristic systems. Tradition need not be discarded without scrutiny; similarly, transition cannot be delayed or deferred. Yet, it needs to be viewed and discussed in the local context with in-built reference to the global scenario. It is relevant to carry out an overview of the manner in which education systems evolved in different societies. For the purpose of this chapter, the focus will be on TVET systems.

Keywords

Vocational Education Trade Union Distance Education Vocational School Lower Secondary Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agrawal, P. 1999. Vocational education for all. In: Pandit Sunderlal Sharma Central Institute of Vocational Education, ed. Vocationalisation of education: perspectives for the new millennium—the challenge, pp. 44–50. Bhopal, India: PSSCIVE.Google Scholar
  2. Agrawal, P. 2000. Vocationalization of agriculture education and gender issues. Indian journal of vocational education, vol. 3, no. 2; vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 30–34.Google Scholar
  3. Australia. Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs. 2001. Annual report (2000–01), Chap. 3. Education and training in Australia. <www.dest.gov.au/archive/publications/annual_/2001/03/3b.htm>
  4. Australian Council of Trade Unions. 2005. <www.actu.asn.au/congress2003/draftpolicies/vetpolicy. html>
  5. China Education and Research Network Information Centre (CERNIC); China Education and Research Network (CERNET). 1998–2000. Modern distance education. <www.edu.cn/20010101/21934.shtml>
  6. China Internal Information Centre. 2004. <www.chinaorg.cn>
  7. Corvalán-Vásquez, O. 1988. Trends in technical-vocational and secondary education in Latin America. International journal of educational development, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 73–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Delors, J. et al. 1996. Learning: the treasure within. Paris: UNESCO. (Report of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century.)Google Scholar
  9. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2006. <www.britannica.com>
  10. European Chemical Employers Group (ECEG); European Mine, Chemicals and Energy Workers Federation (EMCEF). 2004. Joint position paper on education, vocational training and lifelong learning in the European chemical industry. <www.emcef.org/Committees/SD/Che/2004/ECEG-EMCEF-Decl-EN.pdf>
  11. Greinert, W.-D. 2004. European vocational education ‘systems’: some thoughts on the theoretical context of their historical development. European journal of vocational training, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 18–26.Google Scholar
  12. International Labour Organization. 1999. Skill in Asia and the Pacific: why training matters. Geneva, Switzerland: ILO. (Technical report.)Google Scholar
  13. Ishumi, A.G.M. 1988. Vocational training as an educational and development strategy: conceptual and practical issues. International journal of educational development, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 163–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kurian G.T., ed. 1988. World education encyclopedia. New York, NY: Facts on File Publications.Google Scholar
  15. M\ddotunch, J. 1996. Continuing vocational training in the countries of the European Union: diversity of functions and special problems. European journal of vocational training, vol. 1, no. 7, pp. 3–7.Google Scholar
  16. Narottam, P. 2000. Nai Talim in Gujarat, philosophy and development. Amdavad, India: Gujarat Nai Talim Sangh, Gujarat Vidyapith.Google Scholar
  17. National Institute for Educational Policy Research/UNESCO. 2002. Implementing UNESCO/ILO Recommendations for TVET. Tokyo: NIER.Google Scholar
  18. National Science Board. 1996. Science and engineering indicators. Chapter 2: Technical Education in Germany, France, Japan and South Korea. <www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind96/ch2_cont.htm>
  19. Postlethwaite, T.N., ed. 1995. International encyclopaedia of national systems of education, 2nd ed. Oxford, UK: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  20. Tour Egypt. 1999–2003. Education and learning in Ancient Egypt. <www.touregypt.net/historicalessays/lifeinEgypt7/htm>
  21. Wilson, D.N. 1991. Reform of technical-vocational education in Indonesia and Malaysia. Comparative education, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 207–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Xinli Wu. 1991. The potential for technical education in the People’s Republic of China. Journal of technical education, vol. 3, no. 1.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Poonam Agrawal
    • 1
  1. 1.National Council of Educational Research and TrainingIndia

Personalised recommendations