Advertisement

Women in East Asian Education and Society: Whose Gains in Whose Perspectives?

  • Grace C. L. Mak
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE, volume 19)

The World Bank attributed the East Asian miracle of nine high-performing economies to the rapid growth between the 1960s and 1990 that began with Japan, followed by the Asian Tigers of Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, and more recently China, Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia (World Bank, 1993, p. 2). The works on education and development in East Asia generally celebrate the phenomenal economic growth in this region, driven by export-led industrialization, an educated labor force, and relatively equal distribution of social opportunities (Green, 2006; Kim & Lau, 1994; Sen, 2000; World Bank, 1993). Such certainty in the perspective of the outside world is indeed shared by many individuals that live in these societies. The latter are typically members of the new entrepreneurial or professional classes, who are well-educated urban dwellers whose prime years coincide with the boom and have benefited from it. Thus, in broad terms there is agreement on the positive view in and outside East Asia.

Keywords

Human Development Index United Nations Development Programme Labor Force Participation Rate Urban Residence Special Administrative Region 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Asian Development Bank. (1997). Annual report 1996. Manila: Asian Development Bank.Google Scholar
  2. Boserup, E. (1970). Women's role in economic development. New York: St. Martin's Press.Google Scholar
  3. China, National Bureau of Statistics. (2000). China statistical yearbook. Beijing: China Statistics Press.Google Scholar
  4. China, State Statistical Bureau. (2004). Women and men in China: Facts and figures (2004). Beijing: Zhongguo tongji chubanshe.Google Scholar
  5. Chow, E. N. (2002). Transforming gender and development in East Asia. New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  6. Chuang, S. Q. (2001). Memoirs of Chuang Shu Qi. Taipei: yuanliu chubanshe. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  7. Croll, E. (2000). Endangered daughters. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Davin, D. (1999). Internal migration in contemporary China. New York: St. Martin's Press.Google Scholar
  9. Ehrenreich, B., & Hochschild, A. R. (Eds.). (2002). Global women: Nannies, maids, and sex workers in the new economy. New York: Metropolitan Books, Henry Holt & Co.Google Scholar
  10. Green, A. (2006). Education and development in a global era. Paper presented at the Comparative and International Education Society conference, March 14–18, 2006, Honolulu, Hawaii.Google Scholar
  11. Ho, C. R. (2004). Trans-sexuality: Bisexual formations and the limits of categories. Journal of Gender Studies, 7, 1–14.Google Scholar
  12. Ho, C. R. (2006). Embodying gender: Trans body/subject formations in Taiwan. InterAsia Cultural Studies, 7 (2), 228–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ho, P. S. Y., & Tsang, A. K. T. (2002). The things girls “shouldn't” see: Relocating the penis in sex education in Hong Kong. Sex Education, 2 (1), 61–73.Google Scholar
  14. Ho, P. S. Y., & Tsang, A. K. T. (2005). Beyond the vagina-clitoris debate: From naming the sex organ to the reclaiming of the body. Women's Studies International Forum, 28 (6), 523–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Census and Statistics Department. (2002). 2001 Populations census main report vol. 1. Hong Kong: Government Printer.Google Scholar
  16. Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Census and Statistics Department. Retrieved from http://www.info.gov.hk/censtatd
  17. Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. University Grants Committee. Retrieved from http://www.ugc.edu.hk
  18. Hsieh, H. C. (1997). Taiwan, Republic of China. In G. C. L. Mak (Ed.), Women, education, and development in Asia (pp. 65–91). New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  19. Hsieh, J. (2003). Taiwan. In L. Walter, & M. Desai (Eds.), The Greenwood encyclopedia os women's issues worldwide: Asia and Oceania (pp. 469–501). Westport, CT and London: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  20. Jones, G. W. (1997). The demise of universal marriage in East and Southeast Asia. In G. W. Jones, R. M. Douglas, & R. M. D'Souza (Eds.), The continuing demographic transition (pp 51–79). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Kim, Y. H. (2000). Concurrent development of education policy and Industrialization strategies in Korea (1945–95): A historical perspective. Journal of Education and Work, 13 (1), 95–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kim, J. I., & Lau, L. J. (1994). The sources of economic growth in the East Asian newly industrialized countries. Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 8, 235–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Korea National Statistical Office. Retrieved from http://www.nso.go.kr
  24. Korea Women's Development Institute. Retrieved from http://www.kwdi.re.kr
  25. Lee, Y. J., & Cho, S. (1999). Gender differences in children's schooling during the industrialization period: Korea from 1965 to 1994. Development and Society, 28 (2), 285–312.Google Scholar
  26. Li, J. (1995). China's one-child policy: How and how well has it worked? A case study of Hebei province, 1979–1988. Population and Development Review, 21 (3), 563–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lim, S. G. (1996). Among the white moonfaces: Memoirs of a Nyonya feminist. Singapore and Kuala Lumpur: Times Books International.Google Scholar
  28. Luke, C. (1998). Cultural politics and women in Singapore higher education management. Gender and Education, 10 (3), 245–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mak, G. C. L. (1997). Women, education, and development in Asia. New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  30. Mak, G. C. L., & Chung, Y. P. (1997). The education and labour force participation of women in Hong Kong. In F. M. Cheung (Ed.), Engendering Hong Kong society (pp. 13–39). Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Morrison, D. R. (1976). Education and politics in Africa: The Tanzanian case. London: C. Hurst.Google Scholar
  32. Sen, A. (1990). More than 100 million women are missing. New York Review of Books, 20, 61–65.Google Scholar
  33. Sen, A. (2000). Development as freedom. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  34. Singapore Department of Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.singstat.gov.sg
  35. Taiwan Bureau of Statistics. (2003). Gender statistics and life and status of women in Taiwan in international comparison. Taipei: Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.stat.gov.tw Google Scholar
  36. Taiwan, Government Information Office. Retrieved from http://www.gio.gov.tw
  37. Taiwan, Ministry of Education. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.edu.tw
  38. Tie, Z., Xie, J., & Jing, M. (Eds.). (1995). Chinese women professors. Beijing: zhongguo chengshi chubanshe. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  39. United Nations. (1995). The world's women 1995: Trends and statistics. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  40. United Nations. (2000). The world's women 2000: Trends and statistics. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  41. United Nations Development Programme. (2005). Human development report 2005. New York: UNDP.Google Scholar
  42. Wang, F., & Yang, Q. (1996). Age at marriage and the first birth interval: The emerging change in sexual behavior among young couples in China. Population and Development Review, 22 (2), 299–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wei, H. (2001). Shanghai baby. London: Robinson. (Translated from the Chinese by Bruce Humes.)Google Scholar
  44. Whyte, M. K., & Parish, W. L. (1984). Urban life in contemporary China. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  45. The World Bank. (1993). The East Asian miracle: Economic growth and public policy. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Yang, E. (1997). Out of women's land: Story of adventure and love of a Mosuo woman. Beijing: zhongguo shehui chubanshe. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  47. Yang, Y. R. (1994). Education and national development: The Taiwan experience. Taipei: Guiguan chubanshe. (in Chinese).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Grace C. L. Mak
    • 1
  1. 1.The Hong Kong Institute of EducationChina

Personalised recommendations