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APPLICATIONS OF THE SELF-POTENTIAL METHOD TO HYDROLOGICAL PROBLEMS

  • A. Revil
  • K. Titov
  • C. Doussan
  • V. Lapenna
Part of the NATO Science Series book series (NAIV, volume 71)

Abstract

The self-potential method consists in the passive measurement of the distribution of the electrical potential at the ground surface of the Earth and in boreholes. The purpose of this method is to map the electrical potential to reveal one or several polarization mechanisms at play in the ground. In some cases, the self-potential signals are monitored with a network of non-polarisable electrodes, which provides both a better signal-to-noise ratio and the possibility to discriminate between various sources. The two main contributions to the self-potential signals are (1) the streaming potential or hydroelectric coupling (Fournier, 1989; Birch, 1993, 1998; Aubert and Yéné Atangana, 1996; Revil and Leroy, 2001) and (2) electro-chemical processes (membrane or diffusion potentials) associated with gradients of the chemical potentials of ionic species in the pore water (e.g., Sen, 1991; Naudet et al., 2003, 2004; Revil and Leroy, 2005). In the former case, the self-potential signal correponds to the electrical field associated with the flow of ground water in a porous medium and more precisely with the drag of the excess of charge generally contained in the so-called diffuse layer in the vicinity of the mineral surface (e.g. Revil and Leroy, 2004). If the chemical potential concerns the electrons (redox potential), the transfer of electrons through an electronic conductor also generates self-potential signals in the surrounding conductive medium as discussed by Sato and Mooney (1960).

Keywords

Porous Medium Hydraulic Conductivity Hydraulic Head Vadose Zone Geophysical Survey 
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Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Revil
  • K. Titov
  • C. Doussan
  • V. Lapenna

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