Ideology, Land Tenure and Livestock Mobility in Kazakhstan

  • Iliya I. Alimaev
  • Roy H. Behnke Jr

This chapter examines the importance of land tenure in causing changes in the scale of livestock movement. ‘Land tenure’ refers here to the legal principles, written or oral laws, or (more broadly) culturally accepted rights and privileges with respect to property in natural resources. Land tenure is an institutionalized system of ideas. ‘Land use’ refers to observable patterns of land holdings, access to and exploitation of resources. Livestock mobility is an important component of land use in pastoral systems. This analysis focuses on livestock mobility because it is the best available indicator of the extent of rangeland fragmentation across several centuries in Kazakhstan, a country roughly the size of western Europe.


Land Tenure State Farm Sheep Breeding Land Holding Flock Size 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. ADB (Asian Development Bank). 1996. Working Paper No. 1 on Land Reform. Strengthening the implementation of agriculture sector reforms. Danagro Adviser a\s and Landell Mills Ltd, Almaty. Google Scholar
  2. Asanov, K. A., B. P. Shakh, I. I. Alimaev, and S. N. Pryanishnikov. 1992. Pastures of Kasakhstan. Gylym-Science , Almaty.Google Scholar
  3. Bacon, E. E. 1958. Obok: A study of social structure in Eurasia. Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research Inc, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Balmont, V. A., V. I. Matveev, A. I. Polyakove, and N. I. Suvorov. 1950. Funds of winter pasture for occupation by migratory livestock husbandry: Southern part of pre-Ili Moinkun (Sary-Tau-Kum). In: Works on the organization of distant pasture livestock breeding. Kazakh State Publishing House, Alma-Ata.Google Scholar
  5. Behnke, R. H. 1992. New directions in African range management policy. Pastoral Development Network Paper 32c. ODI, London.Google Scholar
  6. Behnke, R. H. 1994. Natural resource management in pastoral Africa. Development Policy Review 12:5-27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Behnke, R. H. 2003. Reconfiguring property rights in livestock production systems of western Almaty Oblast, Kazakstan. Pages 75-107. In: C. K. Kerven, editor. Prospects for pastoralism in Kazakstan and Turkmenistan: From state farms to private flocks. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  8. Borodyn, I. E. 1950. The distant pasture livestock breeding system in Betpak-Dalla Desert conditons. In L. M. Zalsman and B. L. Blomkvest, editors. The experience of distant pasture livestock management in Kolkhozes. State Publishing House for Agricultural Literature, Moscow.Google Scholar
  9. Bromley, D. W. 1989. Economic interests and institutions: The conceptual foundations of public policy. Basil Blackwell Inc, New York and Oxford.Google Scholar
  10. Central Statistics Directorate Kazakh SSR. 1984. Thirty years of cultivation: A short statistical compilation. Central Statistics Directorate Kazakh SSR, Alma-Ata.Google Scholar
  11. Ciriacy-Wantrup, S. V. and R. C. Bishop. 1975. Common property as a concept in natural resource policy. Natural Resources Journal 15:713-27.Google Scholar
  12. Colson, E. 1966. Land law and land holdings among the Valley Tonga of Zambia. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 22:1-8.Google Scholar
  13. Conquest, R. 1986. The harvest of sorrow: Soviet collectivization and the Terror-Famine. Hutchinson, London.Google Scholar
  14. Gordon, H. S. 1954. The economic theory of a common-property resource: the fishery. Journal of Political Economy 62:124-42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Grousset, R. 1970. The empire of the steppes: A history of Central Asia. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ and London.Google Scholar
  16. Hardin, G. 1968. The tragedy of the commons. Science 162:1243-48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kazgiprozem (Kazakh State Institute of Land Tenure and Use). 1983. General scheme for the occupation and use of desert, semi-desert and mountain haylands and pastures of the Kazakh SSR, by complexes. Ministry of AgricultureGoogle Scholar
  18. Kazakh SSR, Alma-Ata. Kenderbai, G. 2002. Land and people: The Russian colonization of the Kazakh steppe. Klaus Schwarz Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  19. Kerven, C., I. I. Alimaev, R. Behnke, G. Davidson, L. Franchois, N. Malmakov, E. Mathijy, A. Smailov, S. Temirbekov, and I. Wright. 2003. Retraction and expansion of flock mobility in Central Asia: costs and consequences. VII International Rangelands Congress, Durban South Africa, July-August 2003.Google Scholar
  20. Khazanov, A. M. 1984. Nomads and the outside world. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  21. Khazanov, A. M. 1992. Nomads and oases in Central Asia. Pages 69-89. In: J. A. Hall and J. C. Jarvie, editors. Transition to modernity: essays on power, wealth, and belief. CUP, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  22. Khodarkovsky, M. 2002. Russia’s steppe frontier: The making of a colonial empire, 1500-1800. Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis. Google Scholar
  23. Krader, L. 1963. Social organization of the Mongol-Turkic pastoral nomads. Mouton & Co, The Hague.Google Scholar
  24. Lattimore, O. 1951. Inner Asian Frontiers of China. Capitol Publishing Co, Inc. and the American Geographical Society, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Manners, R. A. 1964. Colonialism and native land tenure: a case study in ordained accommodation. In R. A. Manners, editor. Process and pattern in culture: Essays in honor of Julian H. Steward. Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  26. Martin, V. 1996. Nomads, borders and the resolution of land disputes in the Middle Horde Kazakh Steppe. Association for the Advancement of Central Asian Research Bulletin 9:2-5.Google Scholar
  27. Martin, V. 2001. Law and custom in the steppe: The Kazakhs of the Middle Horde and Russian colonialism in the nineteenth century. Curzon, Richmond, Surry.Google Scholar
  28. Matveev, V. I. and A. I. Polyakov. 1950. Distant pasture livestock breeding in the sands of Moinkum and in Chu-Ili Mountains of Jambul Oblast: Direction and specialization of livestock over several years. In: Works on the organization of distant pasture livestock breeding. Kazakh State Publishing House, Alma-Ata.Google Scholar
  29. Niamir-Fuller, M. 1999. Managing mobility in African rangelands: The legitimization of transhumance. Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd, London.Google Scholar
  30. Olcott, M. B. 1981. The settlement of the Kazakh nomads. Nomadic Peoples 8:12-23.Google Scholar
  31. Olcott, M. B. 1995. The Kazakhs. Hoover Institution Press, Stanford, California.Google Scholar
  32. Peoples’ Commissioners and Central Committee of the Whole Union of the Bolshevik Communist Party. 1942. Measures for preserving young animals and increasing the number of livestock in Kolkhozes and Sovkhozes. Pravda 13 March 1942.Google Scholar
  33. Robinson, S. 2000. Pastoralism and land degradation in Kazakhstan. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Biological Sciences, Warwick University.Google Scholar
  34. Robinson, S. and E. J. Milner-Gulland. 2003. Contraction in livestock mobility resulting from state farm re-organization. Pages 128-145. In: C. K. Kerven, editor. Prospects for pastoralism in Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan: From state farms to private flocks. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  35. Runge, C.F. 1981. Common property externalities: isolation, assurance and resource depletion in a traditional grazing context. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 63:595-606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sabirova, A. I. 2001. Structural reformation of the land fund of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the process of adaptation to market relations. Pages 31-51. In: A. I. Sabirova, V. V. Gregorik, and T. M. Arshidinov, editors. Land issues in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Almaty.Google Scholar
  37. Saunders, J. J. 1971. The history of the Mongol conquest. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  38. Sneath, D. 1999. Spatial mobility and Inner Asian pastoralism. Pages 218-277. In: C. Humphrey and D. Sneath. The end of nomadism Society, state and the environment in Inner Asia. Duke University Press, Durham.Google Scholar
  39. Zalsman, L. M. 1948. Next tasks of distant pasture livestock breeding. In L. M. Zalsman, and B. L. Blomkvest, editors. The experience of distant pasture livestock management in Kolkhozes. State Publishing House for Agricultural Literature, Moscow.Google Scholar
  40. Zveriakov, I. A. 1932. From nomadic life - to Socialism. Kraevoe Izdatelstvo Ogiza v Kazakhstane, Alma-Ata.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iliya I. Alimaev
    • 1
  • Roy H. Behnke Jr
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pasture and FodderScientific Centre for Animal Production and Veterinary ResearchKazakhstan
  2. 2.CraigiebucklerMacaulay InstituteAB15 8QHUK

Personalised recommendations