Land Use, Fragmentation, and Impacts on Wildlife in Jackson Valley, Wyoming, USA
The Jackson Valley in northwest Wyoming, USA, contains 4,000 km2 of public and private land used for agriculture, grazing, forestry, recreation, conservation, and housing (Figure 6-1). The region offers an unusually complete history of changes in land uses and their implications for access to heterogeneity for humans, domestic livestock, and wildlife. Unlike most of the other case studies in this volume that focus on impacts of fragmentation on people and livestock in classically pastoralist systems, this chapter will include a discussion of impacts of fragmentation on wildlife in an area that is increasingly being developed.
In this chapter, we will discuss three historical periods: the period before settlement by Europeans, the rise of agriculture, and the emergence of recreation-based economies. For each of these historical periods we will discuss land tenure and use, economic forces, and sources of fragmentation. We will then discuss the consequences of fragmentation for wildlife in the region. We close by describing how the Jackson case (and the more general situation in agricultural areas of western North America) fits the model of progression of land use and land tenure described in this book, a model that predicts consolidation of privately-owned land following its fragmentation. We also show how the Jackson case departs from that model in a fascinating way.
KeywordsLand Tenure Private Land Land Tenure System Agricultural Settlement Unearned Income
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Betts, R. B. 1978. Along the ramparts of the Tetons: The saga of Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Colorado Associated University Press, Boulder.Google Scholar
- Bryner, G. 1998. U.S. land and natural resources policy: A public issues handbook. Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.Google Scholar
- Clark, T. W. 1999. The natural world of Jackson Hole: An ecological primer. Grand Teton Natural History Association, Moose, WY.Google Scholar
- Clark, T. W. 2001. Wildlife resources: The elk of Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Pages 91-108. In: J. Burger, E. Ostrom, R. B. Norgaard, D. Policansky, and B. D. Goldstein, editors. Protecting the commons: A framework for resource management in the Americas. Island Press, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
- Connor, M. A. 1998. Final report on the Jackson Lake archeological project, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. USDA, National Park Service, Midwest Archeological Center, Lincoln, Nebraska. Google Scholar
- Culver, L. 2003. From “last of the old West” to first of the new West. Pages 163-180. In: L. Nicholas, E. M. Bapis, and T. J. Harvey, editors. Imaging the big open: Nature, identity, and play in the new West. The University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
- Dieni, J. S., B. L. Smith, R. L. Rogers, and S. H. Anderson. 2000. Effects of ungulate browsing on aspen regeneration in Northwestern Wyoming. Intermountain Journal of Sciences 6:49-55.Google Scholar
- Grand Teton Park and Jackson Hole Visitor’s Guide. 2005. Other History. http://www. jacksonholewy.net/area_info/jh_other_history.php.
- Gruell, G. E. and L. L. Loope. 1974. Relationships among aspen, fire, and ungulate browsing in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region.Google Scholar
- Halverson, A. 2000. The National Elk Refuge and the Jackson Hole elk herd: Management appraisal and recommendations. Pages 23-52. In: T. W. Clark, D. Casey, and A. Halverson, editors. Developing sustainable management policy for the National Elk Refuge, Wyoming. Bulletin No. 104. Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, CT.Google Scholar
- Hobbs, N. T., F. J. Singer and G. Wockner. 2002. Assessing management alternatives for ungulates in the Greater Teton ecosystem using simulation modeling. Natural Resource Ecology Lab, Colorado State University.Google Scholar
- Kay, C. E. 1995. Browsing by native ungulates: effects on shrub and seed production in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Pages 310-320. In: B. A. Roundy, E. D. McArthur, J. S. Haley, and D. K. Mann, compilers. Proceedings: wildland shrub and arid land restoration symposium; 1993 October 19-21; Las Vegas, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-315. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station.Google Scholar
- Love, J. D., J. C. Reed, and K. L. Pierce. 2003. Creation of the Teton landscape. Grand Teton Natural History Association, Moose, Wyoming.Google Scholar
- Matson, N. 2000. Biodiversity and its management on the National Elk Refuge, Wyoming. Pages 101-138. In: T. W. Clark, D. Casey, and A. Halverson, editors. Developing sustainable management policy for the National Elk Refuge, Wyoming. Bulletin No. 104. Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, CT.Google Scholar
- Merrifield, J. and S. Gerking. 1982. Analysis of the long-term impacts and benefits of Grand Teton National Park on the economy of Teton County, Wyoming. University of Wyoming - National Park Service Research Center, Laramie, WY.Google Scholar
- Saylor, D. J. 1970. Jackson Hole, Wyoming. In the shadow of the Tetons. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.Google Scholar
- Singer, F. J., L. C. Zeigenfuss, R. G. Cates, and D. T. Barnett. 1998. Elk, multiple factors, and persistence of willows in national parks. Wildlife Society Bulletin 26:419-428.Google Scholar
- Smith, B. L. 1991. Jackson: The big herds. Bugle 8:48-58.Google Scholar
- Smith, B.L. and R.L. Robbins. 1994. Migrations and management of the Jackson elk herd. National Biological Survey Resource Publication No. 199. USDI, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
- Smith, B. L., E. K. Cole, and D. S. Dobkin. 2004. Imperfect pasture: A century of change at the National Elk Refuge in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Grand Teton Natural History Asso-ciation, Moose, Wyoming.Google Scholar
- University of Texas Population Research Center Great Plains Population and Environment Database: Version 1.0. 1998. Austin: Texas Population Research Center, University of Texas at Austin.Google Scholar
- U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts. Data derived from Population Estimates, 2000 Census of Population and Housing, 1990 Census of Population and Housing, Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates, County Business Patterns, 1997 Economic Census, Minority- and Women-Owned Business, Building Permits, Consolidated Federal Funds Report, 1997 Census of Governments.Google Scholar
- USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service.2002 Census of Agriculture. County Summary Highlights.Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Grand Teton National Park, Science and Resource Management, GIS Office. 2004. Land tracts at Grand Teton National Park and the John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway, WY. http://science.nature.nps.gov/nrdata/.
- USDI. 2005. Draft bison and elk management plan and environmental impact statement. National Elk Refuge and Grand Teton National Park. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Denver, Colorado.Google Scholar
- U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2005. National Elk Refuge highlights, history, feeding, and management. http://nationalelkrefuge.fws.gov/NERHistMgt.html.
- Wagner, F. H., R. Foresta, R. B. Gill, D. R. McCullough, M. R. Pelton, W. F. Porter, and H. Salwasser. 1995. Wildlife policies in the U.S. national parks. Island Press, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
- Wilbrecht, J. and R. Robbins. 1979. History of the National Elk Refuge. Pages 248-255. In: M. S. Boyce and L. D. Hayden-Wing, editors. North American elk: Ecology, behavior, and management. University of Wyoming, Laramie.Google Scholar
- Wright, G. A. 1984. People of the high country: Jackson Hole before the settlers. Peter Lang, New York.Google Scholar