The health of dogs in wealthy, developed countries is generally excellent. The number of veterinarians primarily interested in canine medicine and surgery is high and continues to increase. Knowledge of the diseases of dogs and their prevention and treatment has increased greatly in the last 40 years and continues to grow. This advance in knowledge has allowed veterinarians to support the extreme physical characteristics found in some dogs. It has also allowed veterinarians to prolong the lives of dogs affected with previously incurable diseases. Veterinary surgery is also now highly developed and surgery such as artificial hip replacement is becoming common. Organ transplantation will soon be normal practice. Health insurance for dogs has enabled many clients to avail themselves of what previously would have been prohibitively expensive treatment for their dogs. It has facilitated the development of veterinary practice. The health of the majority of dogs living in underdeveloped countries remains poor and infectious disease epidemics and parasites are very common in these populations.
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