Basic Principles of Green Chemistry

  • V. K. Ahluwalia
  • M. Kidwai


Green chemistry is defined as environmentally benign chemical synthesis. Any synthesis, whether performed in teaching laboratories or industries should create none or minimum by-products which pollute the atmosphere. According to the work carried out by Paul T. Anastas, the following basic principles of green chemistry have been formulated1:
  • Prevention of waste/by-products.

  • Maximum incorporation of the reactants (starting materials and reagents) into the final product.

  • Prevention or minimization of hazardous products.

  • Designing of safer chemicals.

  • Energy requirement for any synthesis should be minimum.

  • Selecting the most appropriate solvent.

  • Selecting the appropriate starting materials.

  • Use of the protecting group should be avoided whenever possible.

  • Use of catalysts should be preferred wherever possible.

  • Products obtained should be biodegradable.

  • The manufacturing plants should be so designed as to eliminate the possibility of accidents during operations.

  • Strengthening of analytical techniques to control hazardous compounds.


Green Chemistry Methyl Amine Benzyl Chloride Elimination Reaction Sodium Ethoxide 
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  1. 1.
    Paul T. Anastas and John C. Warner, Green Chemistry, Theory and Practice, Oxford University Press, New York, 1998.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barry M. Trost, Science, 1991, 254, 1471–1477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Roser A. Sheldon, Chem. Ind. ( London ), 1992, 903–906.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Colin Baird, Environmental Chemistry, W.H. Freeman, New York, 1999.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Anamaya Publishers, New Delhi, India 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. K. Ahluwalia
    • 1
  • M. Kidwai
    • 2
  1. 1.Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Centre for Biomedical ResearchUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia
  2. 2.International Chapter of Green Chemistry in India, Department of ChemistryUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia

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