• Yvette W. Kunz
Part of the Fish & Fisheries Series book series (FIFI, volume 28)


The ontogeny of fishes starts with fertilization, or more precisely, with activation1 of the egg. At the end of the endogenous food supply the major primary organs are usually established. In some fish this stage is attained in a few hours (e.g. zebrafish), in others it takes a few months (salmonids). Since temperature within certain limits enhances or reduces developmental time, so-called degree-days (temperature in °C multiplied by days) have been introduced for comparative analyses. However, this path did not lead to reliable answers. ‘Ignatieva (1976a)’ proposed a hypothesis that in early embryogenesis ‘an interaction between the yolk and active cytoplasm, which determines time of the onset of ribosomal RNA synthesis, is of importance in controlling the temporal relationships’.


Mantle Cavity Exogenous Feeding Poecilia Reticulata Adhesive Organ Indirect Development 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yvette W. Kunz
    • 1
  1. 1.Maurice Kennedy Research Centre for Emeritus StaffUniversity College Dublin, The National University of IrelandDublin 4Ireland

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