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The Making Of A Danish Kantian: Science And The New Civil Society

  • Arne Hessenbruch
Part of the Boston Studies In The Philosophy Of Science book series (BSPS, volume 241)

Hans Christian Ørsted’s life (1777–1851) spanned a tremendous development in science. In 1777 there had been no position for the natural sciences at the University of Copenhagen, by 1851 there was a whole faculty. In Copenhagen in 1777 most people engaging in natural philosophy had had a background in theology, and indeed the educated discourse had been sustained almost entirely by the clergy. By 1851, science related more obviously to manufacturing and industry. In 1777, there had been no general education of the populace and learning was perceived as the kind of training that the young nobility received. By 1851, the more methodical teaching involving exams and graduations were common and opened the door to positions of power and influence. Natural scientists were becoming increasingly professionalized.

Keywords

Civil Society Civil Servant Public Sphere Natural Philosopher Absolutist State 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

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    Kirstine Meyer, “Arbejdsliv” (n. 37), at XCIV–XCV.Google Scholar
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    Kirstine Meyer, “Arbejdsliv” (n. 37), at CIII.Google Scholar
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    It is most interesting that Hans Christian conducted experiments with Fourier in Paris in 1823 and that their joint publication is in the style of Fourier. Hans Christian describes his prejudices against the French in “Ørsted (Hans Christian)”, in Conversations-Lexicon (n. 2), at 524. He describes the much more sympathetic stance he developed to Parisian savants in a letter, quoted in extenso in Hauch (n. 2), pp. 153–155.Google Scholar
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    For example, Repp criticized both the style of teaching and the lack of mathematical acuity in his 1844 textbook, Kirstine Meyer, “Arbejdsliv” (n. 37), at CLV–CLXI.Google Scholar
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    Sværmeri corresponds quite well to romanticism with the pejorative overtones of uncontrolled passions.Google Scholar
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    “Mindetale over det Kongelige danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Præses Hans Excellence Geheimestatsminister Ernst Heinrich Greve af Schimmelmann”, held 14 July 1831, published in Efterladte Skrifter (n. 2), vol. 6, pp. 50–70, esp. pp. 67–69.Google Scholar
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    “Danskhed—en Tale” (Dansk Folkeblad, 1836), reprinted in Efterladte Skrifter (n. 2), vol. 7, pp. 39–58. Hans Christian had discussed the role of the genius in his 1807 history of chemistry but not in terms of control of passions. His 1807 discussion merely has the genius as ahead of the times and not essential; science progresses with a general momentum within which no individual is indispensable, “Betragtninger over Chemiens Historie, en Forelæsning”, Efterladte Skrifter (n. 2), vol. 5, pp. 1–33, at 25–27.Google Scholar
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    Redact., “Om Naturvidenskabernes Fremstilling for Folket”, Dansk Ugeskrift, No. 15, 1832.Google Scholar
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    Efterladte Skrifter (n. 2), vol. 4, pp. 17–18, 37. This seems to refer primarily to the uncivil tone in political debate, and perhaps specifically to Germans. The enemy of many was of course literally Hans Christian’s brother: Anders Sandøe held various ministerial posts between 1842 and 1853, including that of prime minister. His reactionary policies have meant that contemporaries attacked him viciously; and 20th-century secondary literature is much less fulsome with its praise of his legal than his political work.Google Scholar
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    Michael F. Wagner, Det polytekniske gennembrud (n. 19), p. 387.Google Scholar
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    Ibid. p. 382.Google Scholar
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    Hans Vammen, “‘Schouw er velsignet’—En professor og hans guldaldernetværk”, in Krydsfelt—Ånd og natur i Guldalderen, edited by Mogens Bencard, (København: Gyldendal, 2000), pp. 246–257.Google Scholar
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    Ditlev Tamm, Fra “lovkyndighed” til “retsvidenskab” (n. 81), p. 25; Troels G. Jørgensen, De Ørstedske Straffelove (Copenhagen: Gyldendalske Boghandel Nordisk Forlag, 1948), pp. 63–66.Google Scholar
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    Much of his activity relates to this issue: ibid.: The nature of denial under oath (42), burden of proof (56), sanity (63), denial under oath may not count as evidence (73), juramentum ignorantiæ (76), circumstantial evidence (81), presumption of reality of public documents (86), acceptance of affidavit (119), punishment for lying under oath (121), trustworthiness of police officers (123), proof of lie under oath (131), swearing in a Jew (134), abuse of force during interrogation (142), proof of causal occurrence in murder cases (143), sanity in murder case (145, i mordsag 162), punishment for calling unnecessary witness (159).Google Scholar
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    “Veien fra Naturen til Gud”, vol. 3 of Efterladte Skrifter (n. 2).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arne Hessenbruch
    • 1
  1. 1.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyUSA

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