Seagrass Morphology, Anatomy, and Ultrastructure

  • J. Kuo
  • C. den Hartog

Abstract

Seagrasses possess similar organs and tissues as the other flowering plants. Nearly all-mature flowering plants have distinctive above and below ground parts. The exceptions are some pleustophytes such as the Lemnaceae and representatives of the genus Ceratophyllum, and haptophytes such as the Podostemaceae. Below ground parts normally consist of roots for anchoring and rhizomes/stems for mechanical support. Above ground parts usually constitute shoots bearing several leaves. A leaf usually has a basal sheath for protecting the apical meristem and developing leaves, and a distal blade for producing food by photosynthesis and giving off water vapor through transpiration.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abal EG, Loneragan N, Bowen P, Perry CJ, Udy UW and Dennison WC (1994) Physiological and morphological responses of the seagrass Zostera capricorni Aschers. to light intensity. J Exp Marine Biol Ecol 178: 113–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ackerman JD (1993) Pollen germination and pollen tube growth in the marine angiosperm, Zostera marina L. Aquat Bot 46: 189–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ackerman JD (1995) Convergence of filiform pollen morphologies in seagrasses: Functional mechanisms. Evol Ecol 9: 139–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aioi K, Komatsu T and Morita K (1997) The world's longest seagrass, Zostera caulescens from northern Japan. Aquat Bot 61: 87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arai M, Pak JY, NomuraKand Nitta T (1991) Seawater-resistant, non-spherical protoplasts from seagrass leaves. Physiol Plant 83: 551–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arber A (1920) Water Plants. A Study of Aquatic Angiosperms. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  7. Arber A (1925) Monocotyledons. A Morphological Study. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  8. Balestri B, Piazzi L and Cinelli F (1998) In vitro germination and seedling development of Posidonia oceanica. Aquat Bot 60: 83–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barnabas AD (1983) Composition and fine structural features of longitudinal veins in leaves of Thalassodendron ciliatum. South Afr J Bot 2: 317–325Google Scholar
  10. Barnabas AD (1988) Apoplastic tracer studies in the leaves of a seagrass. I. Pathway through epidermal and mesophyll tissues. Aquat Bot 32: 63–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barnabas AD (1989) Apoplastic tracer studies in the leaves of a seagrass. II. Pathway into leaf veins. Aquat Bot 35: 375–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barnabas AD (1991) Thalassodendron ciliatum (Forssk.) den Hartog: Root structure and histochemistry in relation to apoplastic transport. Aquat Bot 40: 129–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barnabas AD (1992) Bacteria on and within leaf blade epidermal cells of the seagrass Thalassodendron ciliatum (Forssk.) den Hartog. Aquat Bot 43: 257–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barnabas AD (1994a) Apoplastic and symplastic pathways in leaves and roots of the seagrass Halodule uninervis (Forssk.) Aschers. Aquat Bot 47: 155–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barnabas AD (1994b) Anatomical, histochemical and ultrastructural features of the seagrass Phyllospadix scouleri Hook. Aquat Bot 49: 167–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barnabas AD (1996) Casparian band-like structures in the root hypodermis of some aquatic angiosperms. Aquat Bot 55: 217–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Barnabas AD and Arnott HJ (1987) Zostera capensis Setchell: Root structure in relation to function. Aquat Bot 27: 309–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Barnabas AD and Kasvan S (1983) Structural features of the leaf epidermis of Halodule uninervis. South Afr J Bot 2: 311–316Google Scholar
  19. Barnabas AD, Butler V and Steinke TD (1982) Zostera capensis Setchell. III. Some aspects of wall ingrowths development in leaf blade epidermal cells. Protoplasma 110: 87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Beer S and Waisel Y (1982) Effects of light and pressure on photosynthesis in two seagrasses. Aquat Bot 13: 331–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Birch, WR (1981) Morphology of germinating seeds of the seagrass Halophila spinulosa (R. Br.) Aschers. (Hydrocharitaceae). Aquat Bot 17: 79–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bornet E (1864) Recherches sur le Phucagrostis major Cavol. Ann Sci Natl Bot et Biol Vegetal (Ser. 5) 1: 5–51Google Scholar
  23. Bragg LH and McMillan C (1986) SEM comparison of fruits and seeds of Syringodium (Cymodoceaceae) from Texas, U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Philippines. Contrib Marine Sci 30: 91–103Google Scholar
  24. Brouns JJWM (1985) A preliminary study of the seagrass Thalassodendron ciliatum (Forssk.) den Hartog from eastern Indonesia. Biological results of the Snellius II Expedition. Aquat Bot 23: 249–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cambridge ML and Kuo J (1982) Morphology, anatomy and histochemistry of the Australian seagrasses of the genus Posidonia König (Posidoniaceae). III. Posidonia sinuosa Cambridge & Kuo. Aquat Bot 14: 1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cambridge ML and Lambers H (1998) Specific leaf area and functional anatomy in Western Australian seagrasses. In: Lambers H, Poorter H and Van Vuuren MMI (eds) Inherent Variation in Plant Growth: Physiological Mechanisms and Ecological Consequences, pp 1–11. Backhuys Publication, Leiden, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  27. Cohen E (1939) An account of the marine angiosperms of Inhaca, P. E. A. South Afr J Sci 36: 246–256Google Scholar
  28. Colombo PM, RascioNand Cinelli F (1983) Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile: A structural study of photosynthetic apparatus. P.S.Z.N.I. Marine Ecol 4: 133–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cooper LW and McRoy CP (1988) Anatomical adaptation to rocky substrates and surf exposure by the seagrass genus Phyllospadix. Aquat Bot 32: 365–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cox PA (1988) Hydrophilous pollination. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 19: 261–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Creed JC (1999) Distribution, seasonal abundance and shoot size of the seagrass Halodule wrightii near its southern limit at Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Aquat Bot 65: 47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Davies GR (1970) Carbonate bank sedimentation, eastern Shark Bay, Western Australia. Am Assoc Petrochem Geol Mem 13: 85–168Google Scholar
  33. De Cock AWAM (1978) Germination of the thread like pollen grains of the seagrass Zostera marina L. Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France Actualités Botaniques 1–2: 145–148Google Scholar
  34. den Hartog C (1970) The Sea-grasses of the World. North Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  35. Di Dat P, Fresi E and Scardi M (2000) A lepidochronological study of Posidonia oceanica: Further analyses on annual leaf production time series. Biol Mar Mediterr 7: 39–42Google Scholar
  36. Doohan ME and Newcomb EH (1976) Leaf ultrastructure and δ13C values of three seagrasses from the Great Barrier Reef. Aust J Plant Physiol 3: 9–23Google Scholar
  37. Ducker SC, Foord NJ and Knox RB (1977) Biology of Australian seagrasses: The genus Amphibolis Agardh (Cymodoceaceae). Aust J Bot 25: 67–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ducker SC, Pettitt JM and Knox RB (1978) Biology of Australian seagrasses: Pollen development and submarine pollination in Amphibolis antarctica and Thalassodendron ciliatum (Cymodoceaceae). Aust J Bot 26: 265–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Duarte C (1991) Seagrass depth limits. Aquat Bot 40: 363–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gibbs RE (1902) Phyllospadix as a beach-builder. Am Nat 36: 101–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Grice AM, Loneragan NR and Dennison WC (1996) Light intensity and the interaction between physiology, morphology and stable isotope ratios in five species of seagrasses. J Exp Marine Biol Ecol 195: 91–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gunning BES (1972) Transfer cells and their roles in transport of solutes in plants. Sci Prog Oxford 64: 539–568Google Scholar
  43. Gunning BES and Pate JS (1969) “Transfer cells”—the plant cells with wall in-growths, specialized in relation to short transport of solutes—their occurrence, structure and development. Protoplasma 68: 107–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Harper JL (1977) Population Biology of Plants. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Hemminga MA (1998) The root/rhizome system of seagrasses: An asset and a burden. J Sea Res 39: 183–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hocking PJ, Cambridge ML and McComb AJ (1980) Nutrient accumulation in the fruits of two species of seagrasses, Posidonia australis and Posidonia sinuosa. Ann Bot 45: 149–161Google Scholar
  47. Hutchinson GE (1975) Treatise on Limnology Vol. III. Limnological Botany, I–X, 660 p. Chapter 31. Wiley & Sons New York, London, Sydney, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  48. Iyer V and Barnabas AD (1993) Effects of varying salinity on leaves of Zostera capensis Setchell. I. Ultrastructural changes. Aquat Bot 46: 141–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Isaacs FM (1969) Floral structure and germination in Cymodocea ciliata. Phytomorphology 19: 44–51Google Scholar
  50. Jagels R (1973) Studies of a marine grass Thalassia testudinum. I. Ultrastructure of osmoregulatory in leaf cells of seagrasses. Am J Bot 60: 1003–1006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jagels R (1983) Further evidence for osmoregulation in epidermal leaf cells of seagrasses. Am J Bot 70: 327–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jagels R and Barnabas AD (1989) Variation in leaf ultrastructure of Ruppia maritima L. along a salinity gradient. Aquat Bot 33: 207–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Japar Sidik B, Muta Harah Z, Mohd Pauzi ZZ and Madhavan S (1999) Halodule species from Malaysia—Distribution and morphological variation. Aquat Bot 65: 33–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Japar Sidik B, Muta Harah Z, Fadzrullah AR and Kamin B (2000) New observations on Halophila spinulosa (R. Br.) Aschers. (Hydrocharitaceae) from Malaysia. Biol Mar Mediterr 7: 75–78Google Scholar
  55. Jewett-Smith J and McMillan C (1990) Germination and seedling development of Halophila engelmannii Aschers. (Hydrocharitaceae) under axenic conditions. Aquat Bot 36: 167–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kaul RB (1978) Morphology of germination and establishment of aquatic seedlings in Alismataceae and Hydrocharitaceae. Aquat Bot 5: 139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Keddy CJ and Patriquin DG (1978) Annual form of eelgrass in Nova Scotia. Aquat Bot 5: 163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kenworthy WJ (2000) The role of sexual reproduction in maintaining populations of Halophila decipiens: Implications for the biodiversity and conservation of tropical seagrass ecosystems. Pac Conserv Biol 5: 260–268Google Scholar
  59. Kuo J (1978) Morphology, anatomy and histochemistry of the Australian seagrasses of the genus Posidonia König (Posidoniaceae). I. Leaf blade and leaf sheath of Posidonia australis Hook. f. Aquat Bot 5: 171–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kuo J (1983a) Notes on the biology of Australian seagrasses. Proc Linnaean Soc N S W 106: 225–245Google Scholar
  61. Kuo J (1983b) Nacreous wall sieve elements in marine Angiosperms. Amer J Bot 70: 159–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kuo J (1984) Structural aspects of apoplastic fungal hyphae in a marine angiosperm Zostera muelleri Irmisch ex Aschers. (Zosteraceae). Protoplasma 121: 1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kuo J (1993a) Functional leaf anatomy and ultrastructure in a marine angiosperm, Syringodium isoetifolium (Aschers.) Dandy (Cymodoceaceae). Aust J Marine Freshwater Res 44: 59–73Google Scholar
  64. Kuo J (1993b) Root anatomy and rhizosphere ultrastructure in tropical seagrasses. Aust J Marine Freshwater Res 44: 75–84Google Scholar
  65. Kuo J (2005) A revision on the genus Heterozostera (Zosteraceae). Aquat Bot 81: 97–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kuo J and Cambridge ML (1978) Morphology, anatomy and histochemistry of the Australian seagrasses of the genus Posidonia König (Posidoniaceae). II. Rhizome and root of Posidonia australis Hook. f. Aquat Bot 5: 191–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kuo J and Kirkman H (1987) Floral and seedling morphology and anatomy of Thalassodendron pachyrhizum den Hartog (Cymodoceaceae). Aquat Bot 29: 1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kuo J and McComb AJ (1989) Seagrass taxonomy, structure and development. In: Larkum AWD, McComb AJ and Shepherd SA (eds) Biology of Seagrasses. A Treatise on the Biology of Seagrasses with Special Reference to the Australian Region, pp 6–73. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  69. Kuo J and Kirkman H (1990) Anatomy of viviparous seagrasses seedlings of Amphibolis and Thalassodendron and their nutrient supply. Bot Mar 33: 117–126Google Scholar
  70. Kuo J and Kirkman H (1992) Fruits, seeds, and germination in the seagrass Halophila ovalis (Hydrocharitaceae). Bot Mar 35: 197–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kuo J and Kirkman H (1995) Halophila decipiens Ostenfeld in estuaries of southwestern Australia. Aquat Bot 51: 335–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kuo J and Stewart JG (1995) Leaf anatomy and ultrastructure of the north American marine angiosperm Phyllospadix (Zosteraceae). Can J Bot 73: 827–842Google Scholar
  73. Kuo J and Kirkman H (1996) Seedling development of selected Posidonia species from southwest Australia. In: Kuo J, Phillips RC, Walker DI and Kirkman H (eds) Seagrass Biology: Proceedings of an International Workshop, pp 57–64. Faculty of Science, University of Western Australia, PerthGoogle Scholar
  74. Kuo J and Den Hartog C (2000) Seagrasses: A profile of an ecological group. Biol Mar Mediterr 7: 3–17Google Scholar
  75. Kuo J, McComb AJ and Cambridge ML (1981) Ultrastructure of the seagrass rhizosphere. New Phytol 89: 139–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kuo J, Aioi K and Iizumi H (1988) Comparative leaf structure and its functional significance in Phyllospadix iwatensis Makino and Phyllospadix japonicus Makino. Aquat Bot 30: 169–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kuo J, Lee Long W and Coles RG (1993) Occurrence and fruit and seed biology of Halophila tricostata Greenway (Hydrocharitaceae). Aust J Marine Freshwater Res 44: 43–57Google Scholar
  78. Kuo J, Ridge RW and Lewis SV (1990a) The leaf internal morphology and ultrastructure of Zostera muelleri Irmisch ex Aschers. (Zosteraceae): A comparative study of the intertidal and subtidal forms. Aquat Bot 36: 217–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kuo J, Iizumi H, Nilsen BE and Aioi K (1990b) Fruit anatomy, seed germination and seedling development in the Japanese seagrass Phyllospadix (Zosteraceae). Aquat Bot 37: 229–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kuo J, Kanamoto Z, Toma T and Nishihara M (1995) Occurrence of Halophila decipiens Ostenfeld (Hydrocharitaceae) in Okinawa Island, Japan. Aquat Bot 51: 329–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lacroix CR and Kemp JP (1997) Developmental morphology of the androecium and gynoecium in Ruppia maritima L.: Considerations for pollination. Aquat Bot 59: 253–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Larkum AWD (1995) Halophila capricorni (Hydrocharitaceae): A new species of seagrass from the Coral Sea. Aquat Bot 51: 319–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Larkum AWD and den Hartog C (1989) Evolution and biogeography of seagrasses. In: Larkum AWD, McComb AJ and Shepherd SA (eds) Biology of Seagrasses. Atreatise on the Biology of Seagrasses with Special Reference to the Australian Region, pp 112–156. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  84. Larkum AWD, Roberts GD, Kuo J and Strother S (1989) Gas movement in seagrasses. In: Larkum AWD, McComb AJ and Shepherd SA (eds) Biology of Seagrasses. A Treatise on the Biology of Seagrasses with Special Reference to the Australian Region, pp 686–722. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  85. Les DH, Cleland MA and Waycott M (1997) Phylogenetic studies in Alismatidae, II. Evolution of marine angiosperms (seagrasses) and hydrophily. Systemic Bot 22: 443–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lipkin Y (1988) Thalassodendron ciliatum in Sinai (Northern Red Sea) with special references to quantitative aspects. Aquat Bot 31: 125–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. McConchie CA and Knox RB (1989a) Pollination and reproductive biology of seagrasses. In: Larkum AWD, McComb AJ and Shepherd SA (eds) Biology of Seagrasses. A Treatise on the Biology of Seagrasses with Special Reference to the Australian Region, pp 74–111. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  88. McConchie CA and Knox RB (1989b) Pollen–stigma interaction in the seagrass Posidonia australis. Ann Bot 63: 235–248Google Scholar
  89. McConchie CA, Ducker SC and Knox RB (1982) Biology of Australian seagrasses: Floral development and morphology of Amphibolis (Cymodoceaceae). Aust J Bot 30: 251–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. McMillan C (1983a) Seed germination in Halodule wrightii and Syringodium filiforme, from Texas and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Aquat Bot 15: 217–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. McMillan C (1983b) Seed germination for an annual form of Zostera marina from the sea of Cortex, Mexico. Aquat Bot 16: 105–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. McMillan C (1987) Seed germination and seedling morphology of the seagrass, Halophila engelmannii (Hydrocharitaceae). Aquat Bot 28: 179–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. McMillan C (1988) Seed germination and seedling development of Halophila decipiens Ostenfeld (Hydrocharitaceae). Aquat Bot 31: 169–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. McMillan C and Bragg LH (1987) Comparison of fruits of Syringodium (Cymodoceaceae) from Texas, U.S. Virgin Islands and the Philippine. Aquat Bot 28: 97–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. McMillan C and Soong K (1989) An annual cycle of flowering, fruiting and seed reserve for Halophila decipiens Ostenfeld (Hydrocharitaceae) in Panama. Aquat Bot 34: 375–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Marbà N and Walker DI (1999) Growth, flowering and population dynamics of temperate Western Australian seagrasses. Marine Ecol Prog Ser 184: 105–118Google Scholar
  97. Meling-Lopez AE and Ibarra-Obando SE (1999) Annual life cycle of two Zostera marina L. populations in the Gulf of California: Contrasts in seasonality and reproductive effort. Aquat Bot 65: 59–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Meling-Lopez AE and Ibarra-Obando SE (2000) Life histories comparison of Zostera marina from the northwest coast of Mexico. Biol Mar Mediterr 7: 95–98Google Scholar
  99. Montaño MNE, Bonifacio RS and Rumbaoa RGO (1999) Proximate analysis of the flour and starch from Enhalus acoroides (L.f.) Royle seeds. Aquat Bot 65: 321–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Muramatsu Y, Harada A, Ohwaki Y, Kasahara Y, Takagi S and Fukuhara T (2002) Salt-tolerant ATPase activity in the plasma membrane of the marine angiosperm Zostera marina L. Plant Cell Physiol 43: 1137–1145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Muta Harah Z, Japar Sidik B and Hishamuddin O (1999) Flowering, fruiting and seedling of Halophila beccarii Aschers. (Hydrocharitaceae) from Malaysia. Aquat Bot 65: 199–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Muta Harah Z, Japar Sidik B, Law AT and Hishamuddin O (2000) Seedling of Halophila beccarii Aschers. in Peninsular Malaysia. Biol Mar Mediterr 7: 99–103Google Scholar
  103. Nielsen LB, Finster K, Welsh DT, Donelly A, Herbert RA, de Wit R and Lomstein BA (2001) Sulphate reduction and nitrogen fixation rates associated with roots, rhizomes and sediments from Zostera noltii and Spartina maritima meadows. Environ Microbiol 3: 63–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Nielsen SL, Thingstrup I and Wigand C (1999) Apparent lack of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) in the seagrasses Zostera marina L. and Thalassia testudinum Banks ex König. Aquat Bot 63: 261–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Olesen B, Enriquez S, Duarte CM and Sand-Jensen K (2002) Depth-acclimation of photosynthesis, morphology and demography of Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa in the Spanish Mediterranean Sea. Marine Ecol Prog Ser 236: 89–97Google Scholar
  106. Orth RJ, Harwell MC, Bailey EM, Bartholomew A, Jawad JT, Lombana AV, Moore KA, Rhode JM and Woods HE (2000) A review of issues in seagrass seed dormancy and germination: Implications for conservation and restoration. Marine Ecol Prog Ser 200: 277–288Google Scholar
  107. Pak J-Y, Fukuhara T and Nitta T (1995) Discrete subcellular localization of membrane-bound ATPase activity in marine angiosperms and marine algae. Planta 196: 15–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Parthasarathy N, Ravikumar K and Ramamurphy K (1988) Floral biology and ecology of Halophila beccarii Aschers. (Hydrocharitaceae). Aquat Bot 31: 141–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Pate JS and Gunning BES (1972) Transfer cells. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 23: 173–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Pergent G (1990) Lepidochronological analysis of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile: A standardized approach. Aquat Bot 37: 39–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Pettitt JM (1984) Aspects of flowering and pollination in marine angiosperms. Oceanography Marine Biol Annu Rev 22: 315–342Google Scholar
  112. Pettitt JM and Jermy AC (1975) Pollen in hydrophilous angiosperms. Micron 5: 377–405Google Scholar
  113. Philbrick CT and Les DH (1996) Evolution of aquatic angiosperm reproductive systems. BioScience 46: 813–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Phillips RC and Meñez EG (1988) Seagrasses. Smithsonian Contribution to the Marine Sciences No. 34, p. 104. Smithsonian Institution Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  115. Porter D, Newell SY and Lingle WL (1989) Tunnelling bacteria in decaying leaves of a seagrass. Aquat Bot 35: 395–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Ried J and Smith HG (1919) An investigation of the “marine fibre” of Posidonia australis. Commonwealth of Australia Institute of Sciences and Industries. Bulletin 14, p. 60. Government Printer, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  117. Roberts DG (1993) Root-hair structure and development in the seagrass Halophila ovalis (R. Br.) Hook. f. Aust J Marine Freshwater Res 44: 85–100Google Scholar
  118. Roberts DG and Moriarty DJW (1987) Lacunal gas discharge as a measure of production in the seagrasses Zostera capricorni, Cymodocea serrulata and Syringodium isoetifolium. Aquat Bot 28: 143–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Roberts DG, McComb AJ and Kuo J (1984) The structure and continuity of the lacunae system of the seagrass Halophila ovalis (R. Br.) Hook. f. (Hydrocharitaceae). Aquat Bot 18: 377–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Roberts DG, McComb AJ and Kuo J (1985) Root development in the seagrass Halophila ovalis (R.Br) Hook. f. (Hydrocharitaceae), with particular reference to the root lacunae. New Phytol 100: 25–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sauvageau C (1890) Observations sur la structure des feuilles des plantes aquatiques. J Bot (Paris) 4: 41–50, 68–76, 117–126, 129–135, 173–178, 181–192, 221–229, 237–145Google Scholar
  122. Sauvageau C (1891) Sur les feuilles de quelques monocotylédons aquatiques. Ann Sci Nat Bot Sér 7, 13: 103–296Google Scholar
  123. Schwarz AM and Hellblom F (2002) The photosynthetic light response of Halophila stipulacea growing along a depth gradient in the Gulf of Aqaba, the Red Sea. Aquat Bot 74: 263–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Sculthorpe CD (1967) The Biology of Aquatic Vascular Plants. Edward Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  125. Semroud R, Verlaque R, Crouzet A and Boudouresque CF (1992) On a broad-leaved form of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (Posidoniaceae) from Algiers (Algeria). Aquat Bot 43: 181–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Soros-Pottruff CL and Posluszny U (1994) Developmental morphology of reproductive structures of Phyllospadix (Zosteraceae). Intl J Plant Sci 155: 405–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Taylor ARA (1957a) Studies of the development of Zostera marina L. I. The embryo and seed. Can J Bot 35: 477–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Taylor ARA (1957b) Studies of the development of Zostera marina L. II. Germination and seedling development. Can J Bot 35: 681–699Google Scholar
  129. Tepper JGO (1882a) Some observations on the propagation of Cymodocea antarctica (Endl.). Proc R Soc South Aust 4: 1–4Google Scholar
  130. Tepper JGO (1882b) Further observations on the propagation of Cymodocea antarctica (Endl.). Proc R Soc South Aust 4: 47–49Google Scholar
  131. Tomlinson PB (1969) On the morphology and anatomy of turtle grass, Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae). II. Anatomy and development of the root in relation to function. Bull Marine Sci (Miami) 19: 57–71Google Scholar
  132. Tomlinson PB (1972) On the morphology and anatomy of turtle grass, Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae). IV. Leaf anatomy and development. Bull Marine Sci (Miami) 22: 75–93Google Scholar
  133. Tomlinson PB (1974) Vegetative morphology and meristem dependence. The foundation of productivity in seagrasses. Aquaculture 4: 107–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Tomlinson PB (1980) Leaf morphology and anatomy in seagrasses. In: Phillips RC and McRoy CP (eds) A Handbook of Seagrass Biology, pp 7–28. Garland STEPM Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  135. Tomlinson PB (1982) Anatomy of the Monocotyledons, VII. Helobiae (Alismatidae). Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  136. Tomlinson PB and Posluszny U (1978) Aspects of floral morphology and development in the seagrass Syringodium filiforme (Cymodoceaceae). The Botanical Gazette 139: 333–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Tyerman SD (1989) Solute and water relations of seagrasses. In: Larkum AWD, McComb AJ and Shepherd SA(eds) Biology of Seagrasses. A Treatise on the Biology of Seagrasses with Special Reference to the Australian Region, pp 723–759. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  138. Van Lent F and Verschuure JM (1994) Intraspecific variability of Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) in the estuaries and lagoons of the southwestern Netherlands I. population dynamics. Aquat Bot 48: 31–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Verduin JJ, Walker DI and Kuo J (1996) In situ submarine pollination in the seagrass Amphibolis antarctica: Research note. Marine Ecol Prog Ser 133: 307–309Google Scholar
  140. Verhoeven JTA (1979) The ecology of Ruppia-dominated communities in western Europe. I. Distribution of Ruppia representatives in relation to their autecology. Aquat Bot 6: 179–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Webster J and Stone BA (1994a) Isolation, structure and monosaccharide composition of the walls of root hairs from Heterozostera tasmanica (Martens ex Aschers.) den Hartog. Aquat Bot 47: 29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Webster J and Stone BA (1994b) Isolation, histochemistry and monosaccharide composition of the walls of vegetative parts of Heterozostera tasmanica (Martens ex Aschers.) den Hartog. Aquat Bot 47: 39–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. West MM, Lott JNA and Murray DR (1992) Studies of storage reserves in seeds of the marine angiospermZostera capricorni. Aquat Bot 43: 75–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. West R (1990) Depth-related structural and morphological variations in an Australian Posidonia seagrass bed. Aquat Bot 36: 153–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Williams SL (1995) Surfgrass (Phyllospadix torreyi) reproduction: Reproductive phonology, resource allocation and male rarity. Ecology 76: 1953–1970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Winterbottom DC (1917) Marine Fibre. Department of Chemistry Bulletin No. 4, p. 36. South AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  147. Yamashita T (1973) Über die Embryo-und Wurzelentwicklung bei Zostera japonica Aschers. et. Graebn. J Faculty Sci, University of Tokyo, Section III. Bot 11: 175–193Google Scholar
  148. Yamashita T (1976) Über die Pollenbildung bei Halodule pinifolia and H. uninervis. Beiträge zur Biologie der Pflanzen 52: 217–226Google Scholar
  149. Zelich I (1971) Photosynthesis and Photorespiration and Plant Productivity. New York, Academic PressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Kuo
    • 1
  • C. den Hartog
    • 2
  1. 1.Zevenheuvelenweg 50The Netherlands
  2. 2.Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, M010The University of Western AustraliaAustralia

Personalised recommendations