The Pacific Sector Hadley and Walker Circulation in Historical Marine Wind Analyses
We investigate the historical variation of the wintertime Pacific marine sector meridional atmospheric circulation, using simple diagnostics calculated from a statistical analysis of 140 years of surface wind data. Intensity of the wintertime expression of the Hadley circulation, as expressed by a wind divergence index, varies interannually and secularly. In agreement with previous studies, interannual variation is associated with variations in the Walker circulation; e.g., El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) activity. The secular variation, most likely affected by systematic measurement biases, is nevertheless consistent with results from simulation of the Indo-Pacific-sector Hadley circulation variability in the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis (see Chapter 3, “Change of the Tropical Hadley Cell since 1950,” Quan et al., this volume; and Chapter 5, “Interannual to Interdecadal Variations of the Hadley and Walker Circulations,” Minobe, this volume) and model simulations of the global atmospheric response to anthropogenic forcing (see Chapter 14, “The Response of the Hadley Circulation to Climate Changes, Past and Future,” Rind and Perlwitz, this volume; and Chapter 17, “Mechanisms of an Intensified Hadley Circulation in Response to Solar Forcing in the Twentieth Century,” Meehl et al., this volume). A proxy network tracking Hadley intensity as mirrored in sea surface temperature (SST), precipitation, surface winds, and/or ocean upwelling might be used to further study processes underlying long-term variability in the Hadley circulation over the past several hundred years.
KeywordsSurface Wind Walker Circulation Hadley Circulation Proxy Data Interannual Time Scale
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bradley, R.S. 1999. Paleoclimatology: Reconstructing Climates of the Quaternary, 2nd edition. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Diaz, H.F., C. Folland, T. Manabe, D. Parker, R. Reynolds, and S. Woodruff. 2002. Workshop on Advances in the Use of Historical Marine Climate Data. WMO Bulletin 51: 377–380.Google Scholar
- Dima, I., and J.M. Wallace. 2003. On the seasonality of the Hadley Cell. Journal of Climate 60: 1522–1527.Google Scholar
- Evans, M.N., A. Kaplan, B.K. Reichert, and M.A. Cane. 2001b. Reconstruction/deconstruction: Toward better paleoclimate estimates. In, EOS, Transactions, GU. Vol. 82(47) Suppl. Abstract GC21A-08, accessed via online abstract database (http://www.agu.org/meetings/waisfm01.html), July 2003.Google Scholar
- Kalnay, E., M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebusuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K.C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetmaa, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, and D. Joseph. 1996. The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 77: 437–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kaplan, A., M.A. Cane, and Y. Kushnir. 2003. Reduced space approach to the optimal analysis interpolation of historical marine observations: Accomplishments, difficulties, and prospects. In, Advances in the Applications of Marine Climatology: The Dynamic Part of the WMO Guide to the Applications of Marine Climatology. Geneva, Switzerland: World Meteorological Organization WMO/TD-1081, pp. 199–216, available at: http://www.wmo.ch/web/aom/marprog/Wordpdfs/Jcomm-TR/JCOMM\20TR13\20Marine\20Climatology/JCOMM_TR13.pdf.Google Scholar
- Kaplan, A., M.A. Cane, Y. Kushnir, and D.L. Witter. 2004. Interannual variability of the tropical Pacific surface winds. International Journal of Climate (in preparation).Google Scholar
- Kaplan, A., M.N. Evans, B.K. Reichert, and M.A. Cane. 2001. Constraints from the instrumental and paleo data on 19th century climate. In, EOS, Transactions, AGU. Vol. 82(47) Suppl. Abstract GC21A-07, accessed via online abstract database (http://www.agu.org/meetings/waisfm01.html), July 2003.Google Scholar
- Kistler, R., E. Kalnay, W. Collins, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, M. Chelliah, W. Ebusuzaki, M. Kanamitsu, V. Kousky, H. Vanden Dool, R. Jenne, and M. Fiorino. 2001. The NCEP/NCAR 50-year Reanalysis: Monthly means CD-ROM and documentation. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 82: 247–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Peixoto, J.P., and A.H. Oort. 1992. Physics of Climate. American Institute of Physics, New York.Google Scholar
- Woodruff, S.D., H.F. Diaz, J.D. Elms, and S.J. Worley. 1998. COADS Release 2 data and metadata enhancements for improvements of marine surface flux fields. Physical. Chemistry of the Earth 23: 517–526, accessed via Internet, May 1, 2003:http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/coads/egs_paper.html. CrossRefGoogle Scholar